CRITIQUE-OF-AR.NET/BIBL-CRITIQUE.HTM – Version 1, August 2017.

Critique of Archaeological Reason

4. Bibliography

Alphabetical

     Entries are annotated and linked to specific notes or other places in the website where the work pertains. The links in the upper right of each entry refer to these notes or places. Where an annotation is missing, or replaced by a publisher's summary, the entry serves as a place holder for future annotation.
     The annotations are not meant to give a summary of any given title, but only to bring out the relevance of the work for the interests of the Critique. Square brackets are used to earmark some notes that are more explicitly expressive of the reviewer's opinion.
     For more extended entries on certain items reference is given to the following sections: E. (Excerpts and Summaries), R. (Reviews and Synopses), Th. (Thematic excursuses) and M. (Monographs).
     All bibliographical entries are contained in this single file, which is sorted alphabetically by the name of the author(s). Please refer to the left side bar as a jump-off point for the retrieval of given items.
     A separate file lists the entries chronologically.
     Another separate file lists the entries in an alphabetical order, with only the name of the author and a short mention of the title.
     Total entries: 553.



Abadía, Oscar Moro; Eduardo Palacio-Pérez
2015 "Rethinking the Structural Analysis of Palaeolithic Art: New Perspectives on Leroi-Gourhan's Structuralism"
in Cambridge Archaeological Journal 25, pp. 657-672.
17.3
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Adams, William Y.; Ernest W. Adams
1987 "Purpose and Scientific Concept Formation"
in The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38.4, pp. 419-440.
3.1
15.11.3
     This is an important article, which takes a special place next to other writing on the classification of artifacts (e.g. Spaulding 1982, Dunnell 1971, 1982, Rouse 1960, 1972, Krieger 1944, Read 1982, 1989, 2007). The discourse on classification has commonly avoided or ignored a basic but crucial fact: the close contact an archaeologist must have with the group of artifacts subject to classification. This very moment affects every decision, choice, query and interpretation of that process, and as such must be solidly formulated and conceptualized. In philosophical terms, this approach marks a clear contrast with the Kuhnian agenda (Kuhn 1962) on scientific thought and synthesis. What the authors aim to do is to avoid the flexibility and lack of determination in the formation of the scientific concept, narrowing it within three crucial notions: precise, objective and subject to observational determinations.
     This understanding is the background for their construction of a classification scheme, using Nubian pottery as a case study and naming the system WYA, after one of the authors. The authors deliberately do not involve any sophisticated mathematical or quantitative application, instead giving prevalence to the close contact with the data and only to a very basic compositional element of pottery: the ware. The main criterion of classification is based on provenance (the excavation unit) and chronology. Upon the completion of this categorization a so-called 102-system (102 kinds of wares) is established.
     Attributes/variables that form a widely agreed ware-concept like construction, fabric, surface, paste and density comprise some of the distinguished parameters. The authors acknowledge direct observation as a complicated decision making process where biased thoughts and estimations become inevitable. In other cases, the inclusion of many details may leave the gap to fall into a circular determination process. Therefore, the laboratory training in recognition of sherd variables is crucial, and an agreement level of 90% among experts is an optimal and accepted value (e.g. Mohs scale of mineral hardness).
     The last few pages are dedicated to the utilization of the biological species classification in the achievement of a scientific classification in archaeology. The discussion is based on the interbreeding between populations, but as they admit, only offers some sketchy comments on their implications on scientific classification. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
2007 Typology and Practical Reality. A Dialectical Approach to Artifact Classification and Sorting
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3.1
15.11.3
     Classifications are central to archaeology. Yet the theoretical literature on the subject, both in archaeology and the philosophy of science, bears very little relationship to what actually occurs in practice. This problem has long interested William Adams, a field archaeologist, and Ernest Adams, a philosopher of science, who describe their book as an ethnography of archaeological classification. It is a study of the various ways in which field archaeologists set about making and using classifications to meet a variety of practical needs. The authors first discuss how humans form concepts. They then describe and analyse in detail a specific example of an archaeological classification, and go on to consider what theoretical generalizations can be derived from the study of actual in-use classifications. Throughout the book, they stress the importance of having a clearly defined purpose and practical procedures when developing and applying classifications. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Agnew, Neville; Janet Bridgland (eds.)
2006 Of the Past, for the Future: Integrating Archaeology and Conservation
Getty Publications, Los Angeles.
     This volume collects papers from the Fifth World Archaeological Congress, held in Washington D.C. (21-26 June 2003) and organized by the Getty Conservation Institute. On that occasion, conservation was for the first time the major theme of an international archaeological conference, and many issues and practical examples on this topic were presented. Matters connected to presentation were also discussed, being naturally connected to the main issue of the survival of the archaeological heritage in modern days. Throughout the papers, thus, the following themes appear: the role of stakeholders for decisions related to the care and use of sites and artifacts; the challenges facing the conservation of archaeological collections; mass tourism and its economic repercussion, technical responses to sites at risk; innovative approaches to site preservation; the question of management of archaeological sites. – [Stefania Ermidoro, February 2014]
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Agrawal, D.P.; V. Bhalakia; S. Kusumgar
1999 "Indian and Other Concepts of Time: A Holistic Framework"
in Murray 1999a, pp. 28-37.
3.3
     The fact that time is culturally determined is increasingly being accepted by archaeologists, but a coherent theory of time is still lacking. The authors suggest that such a theory would help solve not only archaeological problems, but could potentially also function as a 'theory of everything'. The phrase 'durational expectancies' is related to the idea of time as culturally determined - it refers to the assumptions concerning how long certain processes should take made by different people or cultures. An example of the perception of time being determined by culture is biblical genealogy, which set the date of the creation of the world and humans at around 4000 BC; until the 19th century, this meant that science fit its research within this paradigm.
     The authors introduce concepts of time taken from Indian philosophy, where a much deeper sense of time can be found. Within various schools of thought, different views of time exist: in Brahmanism, there is a constant reality underlying all change, while in Buddhism, everything is always in flux, and only the instant is real. Within Brahmanism, different schools offer additional views of time: the moment as real, with any unitary view being an illusion; and time being personified as eternal, and so having no end or beginning and therefore rather being unitary. Time is seen as either perceived or inferred (real or imaginary/created). The relation between time and change is seen as either dependent and causal or independent of each other. Jainism, on the other hand, incorporates both change and permanence in its perception of time - "an atomic pluralist view of time where time is real and absolute but not unitary" (p. 34).
     These ideas of time bring about broader socio-economic biases, and though less clearly so, the same happens in modern science. For example, this happens through the impact of studies in genetics, evolutionary theory, and physics (especially with concepts of irreversibility and the forward-pointing arrow of time). – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
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Algaze; et al.
1989 "The Uruk Expansion Cross-cultural Exchange in Early Mesopotamian Civilization [with Comments and Reply]"
in Current Anthropology 30.5, pp. 571-608.
     Algaze's groundbreaking article discusses the model he developed in his dissertation, a model whereby the Uruk culture is shown as one of diffusion through colonization. His work in the Susiana and other areas, as well as publications from other sites, is used to point to archaeological and chronological evidence supporting this claim. The model posits a series of settlement types: enclaves, stations, outposts. He also considers the impact of this expansion on the local societies (periphery), particularly in terms of assimilation and the disappearance of local traditions. The collapse of this system, having expanded beyond its means of control, is discussed as well (587). – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Allais, Lucia
2013 "Integrities: The Salvage of Abu Simbel"
in Grey Room 50/Winter, pp. 6-45.
9.3
     This paper tells the remarkable story of the complete relocation of several temples at the ancient Egyptian site of Abu Simbel due to the building of a new dam that would flood the structures. This includes a critical assessment of some of the history and impact of preservation, and the technology involved in the procedure of the relocation. – [Laerke Recht, March 2016]
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Ammerman, J. Albert
1992 "Taking Stock of Quantitative Archaeology"
in Annual Review of Anthropology, pp. 231-255.
3.4.1
15.11.3
     An interesting overview focused on the application of quantification in archaeology. It takes a historical and analytical approach to dealing with problems, flaws and contributions of quantitative logic in the clarification of the past. The implications of this agenda have interferred in the discipline rather late. A seminal effort occurred in 1953 with Spaulding (1953), who attempted to apply chi-square analysis to some ceramic types (assigned according to their attributes). Ammerman sees this initial attempt and others that followed as highly problematic and not quite capable of cogently addressing and interpreting an archaeological query. He argues that the simple conversion of archaeological data into numbers together with the interpretation of the subsequent result with formal mathematical theories has only led to greater misunderstanding, "If the logic of archaeological thinking and the logic of mathematical reasoning were indeed one and the same, as Spaulding seemed to imply, then there would be no need to tailor new quantitative methods specifically to archaeological problem solving; one had simply to use the formal machinery already at hand in the mathematical and statistical literature" (p. 243).
     Ammerman uses funny remarks towards Dunnell (Dunnell 1971, 1982), and compares his theoretical and methodological synthesis in archaeology to that of medieval medicine: "The tension between theory and practice in contemporary archaeology, as identified by Dunnell, is much like that in medieval medicine. Dressed in red gowns and tall hats, the physicians of the Middle Ages would gather round a sick person, discuss the patient's case in philosophical terms, and then turn the individual over to a lowly assistant, perhaps a barber, who would administer a cure" (pp. 235-236).
     According to Ammerman, the gap between the quantitative/mathematical method and archaeology has only been filled with formalistic theories on behalf of archaeologists. To a certain extent, most of the archaeological studies that rely on quantitative methods have not managed to build a cohesive strategy that integrates the formulation of query, theory, methodology and hypothesis testing. More clearly, this is explained by his reference to Aldenderfer: "Most of the archaeologists who jumped on the bandwagon had little formal training in mathematics, statistics, and quantitative analysis and were thus prone to make basic mistakes. Those archaeologists who did not jump on the bandwagon were similarly ill-prepared to identify the mistakes being made. To many, statistical analysis became an end in itself" (quoting Aldenderfer, p. 235).
     Ammerman's agenda is to not ignore the application of quantification in the field. Instead, he shifts the focus while discussing some beneficial efforts taking place during the 1970s. More explicitly, he deals with the volume Quantitative Research in Archaeology (ed. M.S. Aldenderfer, 1987) which gives the marriage of quantitative science and archaeology another dimension. The contribution of Read in the volume is rated highly: "Read wants to see mathematics used to a much greater extent as a tool for thinking in archaeology: that is, not just for the analysis of data but for the formal representation of ideas and theories. This chapter should be read in conjunction with a review by the same author (78). Read calls for first the symbolic representation of the relationship, structure, process, or system that one would like to study and then the derivation of expectations or implications on the basis of mathematical reasoning" (pp. 240-24).
     Particular attention is given to the implication of the quantitative methods in the classification process of archaeological data. Here again, a plethora of problems are highlighted. Any application from the quantitative initiative including the chi-square, two-away contingency tables, the assignment of variables (nominal, interval, ratio, ordinal) has yielded implausible results, leaving a lot of space for intuitive decisions and also opening many other dilemmas and queries in the designation of quantitative and qualitative attributes or the emic and etic categories. Discrepancies of this kind have made several archaeologists shift the focus towards traditional approaches. For instance, Adams would revoke: "I simply want to see the 'typological debate' returned to the arena where it rightly belongs: to the realm of the field archaeologist who has not only to make classifications but use them, day in and day out, year in and year out" (Ammerman quoting Adam, p. 244).
     Positive remarks are noted on the application of factor analysis by the Binfords, and on recent applications of the intrasite spatial analysis that became highly beneficial for the understanding of spatial distribution and meaning of the data. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
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Anawalt, Patricia Rieff
1996 "Textiles of Sacrifice: Aztec Ritual Capes"
in Sacred and Ceremonial Textiles: Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 131-140.
Available online
16.2.1
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Arakawa, Takahiro; et al
2015 "A Sniffer-Camera for Imaging of Ethanol Vaporization from Wine: The Effect of Wine Glass Shape"
in Analyst 140.8, pp. 2881-2886.
16.3.2
     In modern society, certain vessel shapes are associated with specific contents (e.g. wine from a wine glass, tea from a mug/cup etc.), and we may even feel that colour influences the experience of a food or drink. This is usually believed to be culturally determined or a kind of 'optical illusion', but this study provides some indication that science can at least partially support our intuitions. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Areshian, Gregory
2003 "The Zoomorphic Code of the Proto-Indo-European Mythological Cycle of 'Birth-Death-Resurrection': A Linguistic-Archaeological Reconstruction"
in David L. Peterson, Laura M. Popova and Adam T. Smith (eds.), Beyond the Steppe and the Sown: Proceedings of the 2002 University of Chicago Conference on Eurasian Archaeology.
Leiden and Boston: Brill, pp. 282-295.
16.3.1
2006 "Sequences of Signs: Eurasian Archaeology from a Perspective of Cultural Semiotics"
in K. Jones-Bley, M.E. Huld, A. Delia Volpe and M.R. Dexter (eds.), Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference: Los Angeles, November 8-9, 2002.
Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, pp. 228-249.
16.3.1
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Aristotle
2005 Divisioni
Edited by Cristina Rossitto
Milano: Bompiani.
14.4.1
M.: Kant
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Arp, Robert; Barry Smith; Andrew D. Spear
2015 Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology
Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015. Pp. 248.
13.4.2
     In the era of "big data," science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of particular relevance to biomedicine, covering theoretical components of ontologies, best practices for ontology design, and examples of biomedical ontologies in use.
     After defining an ontology as a representation of the types of entities in a given domain, the book distinguishes between different kinds of ontologies and taxonomies, and shows how applied ontology draws on more traditional ideas from metaphysics. It presents the core features of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), now used by over one hundred ontology projects around the world, and offers examples of domain ontologies that utilize BFO. The book also describes Web Ontology Language (OWL), a common framework for Semantic Web technologies. Throughout, the book provides concrete recommendations for the design and construction of domain ontologies. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Ashurst, John
2007 The Conservation of Ruins
Amsterdam: Elsevier.
9.2
     This book presents a collection of papers on the conservation of ruins (as opposed to complete buildings). In the introduction, Ashurst points out the difference in the two types of conservation, both conceptually and practically. Ruins and sites are integrally connected, "The site is the reason for the ruin's existence; it was the site that provided security or shelter, needed to be guarded, offered profitability and prosperity, or instilled awe or inspired by the beauty of its natural setting" (p. xxvi).
     The conservation of ruins is seen as vital to present and future knowledge, and in this book, the objective is understood as conserving with as little change to the original as possible. This is because even the minutest act of conservation requires some level of interpretation, which always runs the risk of obscuring the original.
     In a paper on display and presentation, Amanda White explains some of the core concepts related to conservation, including restoration, reconstruction, anastylosis (rebuilding collapsed buildings in their original position), deliberate ruination, managed decline and replication. She also discusses practical concerns of visitor counts and access, paying special attention to how a site can and should be maintained long term, and how it should be presented in an intelligible way. "The objective of physical presentation must, in addition to being authentic in all respects (design, materials, workmanship and so on), be determined by the particular site and its individual setting" (p. 249). – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Assmann, Aleida; Jan Assmann (eds.)
1992 Schrift und Gedächtnis. Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation
München: Fink.
Th: broken traditions
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Assmann, Jan
1983 Das kulturelle Gedächtnis. Schrift, Erinnerung und politische Identität
München: Beck.
Th: broken traditions
1986 "Viel Stil am Nil? Altägypten und das Problem des Kulturstils"
in H.U. Gumbrecht & K.L. Pfeifer (eds.), Stil: Geschichten und Funktionen eines kulturwissenschaftlichen Diskurselementes, pp. 519-537.
     Assmann's definition of 'Kulturstil' is a join of Style, which he terms the expression of a characteristic element [Eigenart], and Culture, which he defines as the sum of all the symbolic means of expression of a society. He identifies fundamental sets of rules which aid in the Standardization and Duration of stylistic elements: proportion, projection, representation, exclusion, and syntax. He also defines a 'Canon' and contrasts it with the concept of Style defined above. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
2005 Religion and Cultural Memory: Ten Studies
Stanford: University Press.
Th: broken traditions
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Atalay, Sonya; Lee Rains Clauss; Randall H. McGuire; John R. Welch (eds.)
2014 Transforming Archaeology: Activist Practices and Prospects
Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.
8.12
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Bahn, Paul G.
2001 The Penguin Archaeology Guide
Edited by Paul Bahn. London: Penguin.
5.3.1
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     This dictionary-type book includes good, concise entries on 'excavation', 'stratification', 'stratigraphy', and archaeological approaches such as 'New archaeology' and 'postprocessual archaeology', among others. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
2012 Cave Art. A Guide to the Decorated Ice Age Caves of Europe
London: Frances Lincoln Ltd. (2012 revised edition; first edition: 2007).
9.4
     A guide book to 57 cave sites. The sections on Lascaux (pp. 93-99) and Altamira (pp. 157-164) contain insightful remarks about the relative merits of the replicas, Lascaux II and Altamira II. Particularly with regard to Altamira, Bahn notes (pp. 161 f.) that the replicas offer four distinct advantages vis-a-vis the original: (1) one sees the entrance in relation to daylight, impossible in the original; (2) one can see the ceiling, which is difficult in the original because there the floor level has risen; (3) in the original some "hideous concrete walls were installed in the early twentieth century to prevent the ceiling from collapsing"; (4) the engravings are hard to see in the original. – [Giorgio Buccellati, October 2015]
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Bahrani, Zainab
2003 The Graven Image: Representation in Babylonia and Assyria
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
16.6.1
Th: colonialism
2006 "Race and Ethnicity in Mesopotamian Antiquity"
in World Archaeology 38.1, pp. 48-59.
16.4.2
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Bailey, Geoff
2008 "Time Perspectivism: Origins and Consequences"
in Simon Holdaway and LuAnn Wandsnider (eds.), Time in Archaeology: Time Perspectivism Revisited.
Utah: Utah University Press, pp. 13-30.
Th: stratigraphy
     Bailey elaborates on his concept of time perspectivism. He argues that archaeology is a discipline in which the resolution of time is very important and the notion of scale strongly influences how we interpret the record. The archaeological record is described as a palimpsest - data is scattered, with many gaps but sometimes overlapping. The further back in time, the lower the resolution and the more gaps appear, a feature which very much lends itself to macro-scale analysis and interpretations. In this paper, Bailey especially defends himself against charges by interpretive and postprocessual archaeologists of neglecting individuals and agency. Although time perspectivism particularly lends itself to longer term processes and structures, it is not exclusively for such questions, and certainly does not claim that other kinds of research and questions should not be carried out / asked. It does, however, focus on the nature of time and how different resolutions provide potential for different kinds of 'stories' [something which in fact seems perfectly compatible with interpretive and postprocessual archaeologies]. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Balter, Michael
2006 The Goddess and the Bull. Çatalhöyük: An Archaeological Journey to the Dawn of Civilization
Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.
Th: excavation
     This is a captivating biographical-type story of the excavations of the fascinating site of Çatalhöyük in Turkey. The focus is on the excavations of Ian Hodder, but before this, we are offered the background and controversy surrounding the previous excavator, James Mellaart. Along the way, Balter provides an excellent explanation and account of the beginnings and arguments between processual and post-processual archaeology, as spearheaded by Binford on the one hand and Hodder on the other. Hodder's use of contextual, interpretative, high definition archaeology at the site is placed in its social and practical contexts. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Balza, M.E.; C. Mora
2014 "Memory and Tradition of the Hittite Empire in the post-Hittite Period"
in Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale 57, pp. 428-39.
Th: broken traditions
     A study on the "cultural memory" of the period following the fall of the Hittite empire. Following a thoughtful and well documented review of studies on this topic (especially Halbwach and Assman), specific cases are studied that illustrate in concrete the relationship between the two sides of the temporal divide of the dark age following the 13th century B. C. – [Giorgio Buccellati, October 2014]
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Barceló, Juan A.; Maurizio Forte; Donald H. Sanders (eds.)
2000 Virtual Reality in Archaeology
British Archaeological Reports International Series 843.
Oxford: Archaeopress.
10.6
     Papers on the various applications of 'virtual reality' in archaeology, with accompanying CD-ROM. Different reconstructions and 3D models are presented, and some of the techniques used are introduced (including computer software).
     There are also discussions concerning the history and definition of the term 'virtual reality', and concepts such as image construction, visualisation, reconstruction, interactivity and enhanced/augmented reality.
     An important note is made about the use of virtual in archaeology: it is used either as an improved way of communicating or illustrating specific findings, or for better or new understanding of the data. The latter is rare and its potential generally not yet realised. – [Laerke Recht, March 2016]
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Barker, Graeme
1999 Companion Encyclopedia of Archaeology
London and New York: Routledge.
6.3.4
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Barker, Philip
1982 Techniques of Archaeological Excavation
New York: Universe Books. Second edition.
15.10.1
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Barrelet, M.-Th.; Jean-Claude Gardin
1980 A propos des interprétations archàologiques de la poterie: Questions ouvertes
Paris: Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, p. 165.
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Baudrillard, Jean
1994 Simulacra and Simulation
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Originally published in French in 1981 as Simulacres et simulation. Translated by Sheila Faria Glaser.
8.3
Excerpts
     This books collects a number of essays by the French philosopher / cultural theorist Jean Baudrillard on his notions of simulation, simulacra and the real. The essays especially relate to the status of the real in media (including news media, films and advertising) and its use in political agendas.
     Although Baudrillard's focus is elsewhere, the concepts of simulation and simulacra can be compared to the understanding of the archaeological record as constitutive (CAR 8.3). A simulation is a degree beyond pretending, in that the difference between real and simulated becomes blurred - for example, a person simulating an illness may in fact produce some of the symptoms without having the actual illness. But if the symptoms are real, the distinction begins to fade. The replica cave of Lascaux could also be seen as an example. The next step is what Baudrillard calls a simulacrum. This is where the simulated, the model, the sign, becomes more real than what it originally referred to. In fact, the original may no longer exist (or never existed in the first place). A famous example used by Baudrillard is the film Apocalypse Now, where the violence has at least to some felt as real or more real than the actual events. This is exacerbated by the astronomical costs and conditions during production. In a similar vein, the archaeological record can be seen as a simulacrum - in the sense that the primary referent is lost, no longer exists, but is only constituted in the record created by archaeologists. This record in a way becomes reality, the only remaining referent to an original (an original that can only ever be constituted or interpreted). – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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Bauer, C. J.; Britta Caspers; Werber Jung (eds.)
2010 Georg Lukács, Kritiker der unreinen Vernunft
Studien des Gesellschaftswissenschaftlichen Institutes Bochum (GIB), Vol. 3.
Duisburg: Universitätsverlag Rhein-Ruhr.
15.2
     A series of essays that deal primarily with Lukács' book Die Zerstörung der Vernunft, i.e. with the notion of irrationalism seen as a bourgeois reactionary ideology. [There is no explicit confrontation with Kant's notion of pure reason. In other words, the term "impure reason" is used in an analogical, not in a critical, sense.]
     Tobias Christ, "Lukács' Begriff des Irrationalismus. Versuch einer Rekonstruktion," pp. 60-83, traces back «die Anfänge dieser vernunftfeindlichen Denktradition» to Schelling and all the way up to the existentialists and the "fascists" who brought irrationalism from the university chairs to the streets. – [Giorgio Buccellati, March 2014]
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Bauman, Zygmunt
2000 Liquid Modernity
Cambridge: Polity.
Th: broken traditions
     In this new book, Bauman examines how we have moved away from a 'heavy' and 'solid', hardware-focused modernity to a 'light' and 'liquid', software-based modernity. This passage, he argues, has brought profound change to all aspects of the human condition. The new remoteness and un-reachability of global systemic structure coupled with the unstructured and under-defined, fluid state of the immediate setting of life-politics and human togetherness, call for the rethinking of the concepts and cognitive frames used to narrate human individual experience and their joint history.
     This book is dedicated to this task. Bauman selects five of the basic concepts which have served to make sense of shared human life - emancipation, individuality, time/space, work and community - and traces their successive incarnations and changes of meaning.
     Liquid Modernity concludes the analysis undertaken in Bauman's two previous books Globalization: The Human Consequences and In Search of Politics. Together these volumes form a brilliant analysis of the changing conditions of social and political life by one of the most original thinkers writing today. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Baxandall, Michael
1978 Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy.2
A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style

Oxford: Oxford University Press. (First edition: 1972)
Th: broken traditions
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Becher, Bernd; Hilla Becher; Armin Zweite
2004 Typologies of Industrial Buildings
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
15.11.3
     Bernd and Hilla Becher's photography can be considered conceptual art, typological study, and topological documentation. Their work can be linked to the Neue Sachlichkeit movement of the 1920s and to such masters of German photography as Karl Blossfeldt, August Sander, and Albert Renger-Patzsch. Their photographs of industrial structures, taken over the course of forty years, are the most important body of work in independent objective photography. A keynote of their contributions to "industrial archaeology" has been their creation of typologies of different types of buildings; this book, which accompanies a major retrospective exhibition, collects all known Becher studies of industrial building types and presents them as a visual encyclopedia.
     Each chapter is devoted to a different structure: water towers, coal bunkers, winding towers, breakers (ore, coal, and stone), lime kilns, grain elevators, blast furnaces, steel mills, and factory facades. These are organized according to typologies, most of which are presented as tableaux or suites of about twelve images each. The book contains close to 2000 individual images. The accompanying text by Armin Zweite is an essential art historical consideration of the Bechers' work. This ultimate Becher book stands as a capstone to the Bechers' unique body of work. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Beck, Anthony; Cameron Neylon
2012 "A Vision for Open Archaeology"
in World Archaeology 44.4, pp. 479-497.
9.7
     The authors present their vision of how the concept of 'open' can be used in and improve archaeology. 'Open' refers to free access and redistribution and includes not only academic papers and monograph publication, but also software, methodology, source code and data, including 'raw' data. Some of the barriers in sharing these aspects are discussed as bureaucracy, media and incompatible structures and formats. The obvious advantages of open archaeology are free access to a much broader array of scholars and other stakeholders, which in turn is seen as essentially leading to better knowledge and interpretation. That is, the more information about a certain topic, the higher the standard of the conclusions that can be drawn.
     However, there are issues and problems that need to be considered - accreditation, copyright and licensing are some of these. The academic system is also set up in such a way that publication is rewarded and accredited much higher than e.g. simple data output. Perhaps even more significant are those with a strong ethical aspect, such as when data has implications for living communities or cultural groups or when data can be utilised for illegal activity like looting.
     The archaeological process is divided into a three-stage process: 1) physical observation - measurements and recording of features and objects; 2) classifications and groupings of the data, which help structure the physical observations; and 3) interpretation, analysis and hypothesis. Each of these can be shared in an open format, but often only 3) is in fact shared, which does not give access to 1) and 2), and therefore does not allow for others to 'repeat the experiment' (i.e. test the conclusions based on the 'raw' data).
     In the authors' vision, the data of physical observations would be placed in an open repository that consists of a broad array of sites [ideally all sites?] and is able to link this data. "The feedback mechanism implied by linked data can profoundly alter the way archaeologists, and others, engage with their data and derived resources" (p. 484).
     This paper is part of a World Archaeology volume dedicated to digital archaeology. See Lake 2012. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Bennett, Tony
2004 Pasts beyond Memory: Evolution, Museums, Colonialism
London and New York: Routledge.
9.6
     This book looks at the relationship between museums and society, including changing attitudes in museum display and strategies. The influence of colonialism and political developments is discussed in detail. Archaeology and archaeological methods are also closely related to how museums choose to present the objects from the past. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Bentley, R. Alexander; Christopher Chippindale; Herbert D.G. Maschner (eds.)
2008 Handbook of Archaeological Theories
Lanham, New York, Toronto and Plymouth: Altamira Press.
     Collection of essays reviewing theoretical and philosophical trends throughout the history of archaeology as a discipline, and their practical applications. See also the entries on Webster 2008 (culture history), Earle 2008 (anthropology), and Gardner 2008 (agency). – [Laerke Recht, July 2014]
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Berggren, Åsa; Nicolo Dell'Unto; Maurizio Forte; Scott Haddow; Ian Hodder; Justine Issavi; Nicola Lercari; Camilla Mazzucato; Allison Mickel
2015 "Revisiting Reflexive Archaeology at Çatalhöyük: Integrating Digital and 3D Technologies at the Trowel's Edge"
in Antiquity 89.344, pp. 433-448.
13.1
     The authors explain how digital technologies have been used at the excavations of Çatalhöyük and the impact this has had on the process, interpretation and approach of all those involved. Special emphasis is here on those technologies that have allowed for greater reflexivity. Computer tablets are used for recording in the field and integrated into 3D modelling and intra-site GIS. This really takes digital archaeology to the trowel's edge and allows for immediate feedback through the integration into the overall database. It also allowed better and increased communication between specialist labs and people working in the field. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Bernbeck, Reinhard
1997 Theorien in der Archäologie
Tübingen and Basel: A. Francke.
3.1
5.6
7.6
     Pp. 15-34: Bernbeck sees classical and prehistoric archeologies as the founding fields for the broad spectrum of theoretical approaches as seen in the diverse fields of archaeology today. Classical archaeology moved from a near poetic appreciation of art to a moment of analysis of individual objects to a systemic study of the field. While fieldwork developed into an important part of classical archaeology, it remains tied to its art-historical roots. Prehistoric archaeology began with a strong fieldwork component, and was focused on understanding cultures and their interaction as seen through changes in material culture. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Berners-Lee, Tim; J. Headler; O. Lassila
2001 "The Semantic Web"
in Scientific American, May 2001, pp. 34-43.
11.3.6
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Berners-Lee, Tim; Nigel Shadbolt; Wendy Hall
2008 "The Semantic Web Revisited"
in IEEE Intelligent Systems, May-June 2006, pp. 96-101.
Available online: eprints.soton.ac.uk/262614/1/Semantic_Web_Revisted.pdf
3.1
11.3.6
12.7
13.3.1
13.4.2
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Berry, D.
2012 Understanding Digital Humanities
Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
11.6.1
     Collection of essays on digital humanities, especially theoretical aspects. In Berry's introductory essay, a discussion on 'humanity and the humanities' is particularly relevant for CAR: "If code and software are to become objects of research for the humanities and social sciences, including philosophy, we will need to grasp both the ontic and ontological dimentions of computer code. Broadly speaking, then, I suggest that we introduce a humanistic approach to the subject of computer code, paying attention to the wider aspects of code and software, and connecting them to the materiality of this growing digital world." (p. 17) – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
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Beyer, Christian
2015 "Edmund Husserl"
in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Summer 2015 edition.
Available online: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive [Accessed 25 July 2016].
15.11.3
     Introduction to the work of Husserl, the so-called father of phenomenology. Includes discussion of some of his core concepts, such as intentionality, pure logic (and pure grammar), the eidetic reduction, epoché, bracketing, intersubjectivity and transcendental phenomenology. – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
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Bietti Sestieri, A. M.
1986 "I dati di fronte alla teoria"
in Dialoghi di archeologia 3/4, pp. 249-263.
Excerpts
     Accepting the need for establishing and following universal laws in archaeology, the author analyzes four groups of tombs from central Italy, and proposes two possible sets of inferences. The first draws on the typology of the tombs to derive inferences about the social structure of the particular groups to which these tombs belong, while the second proposes a model for the analysis of necropoleis in general. The concluding remarks address the issue of earlier documentation, indicating how it is well nigh impossible to apply similar standards when the published information is insufficient. – [Giorgio Buccellati and Luca Pintaudi, October 2014]
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Binford, Lewis
1962 "Archaeology as Anthropology"
in American Antiquity 28.2, pp. 217-225.
2.1
2.8.2
     In this article, Binford coins the phrase "Archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing," suggesting that archaeological thought is derived from anthropological studies. Buccellati, contra Binford, discusses archaeology as a unique and self-contained discipline rather than defining it as a subdiscipline or subcategory of another discipline. – [Heidi Dodgen, February 2013]
1972 An Archaeological Perspective
New York: Seminar Press, pp. 20-32.
     A further investigation of Binford's approach to archaeology as science (see Binford 1971), this paper presents various aims and approaches in archaeology and places them in a historical context. This article provides some background to the problem that Buccellati points out, namely that of categorizing archaeology as a subdiscipline – [Heidi Dodgen, February 2013]
2001 "Where Do Research Problems Come From?"
in American Antiquity 66.4, pp. 669-678.
4.1
16.5
     The clash and controversy between the traditional approach and processualism takes a different direction here (see Renfrew 1980, Flannery 1982). Binford, the pioneer of processualism, centers the discourse at a basic level: the research target, or what is the focus of our studies. As he writes, "I cannot make any judgment about the rationality of the way you intend to proceed until you tell me what you are trying to accomplish" (p. 669).
     Traditional archaeology, on the other hand, is not preoccupied with the source of the problem. Perceived from the perspective of Taylor, archaeology is, if anything, more of a technical field which based on subject and query seeks to borrow from other disciplines. According to Taylor (1948: 44), "Archaeology is neither history nor anthropology. As an autonomous discipline it consists of a method and a set of specialized techniques for the gathering or "production" of cultural information" (p. 669).
     In Binford's view, the above definition does not infer a 'how' or 'why' or to what extent interpretation is formed, hence does not fully addresses the mission of the discipline. A theoretical approach cannot spring from first-order observations. Instead, what is required is a relational strategy among things like actors, actions and places, associated with other types of contexts like those studied in ethnography.
     Binford and Renfrew (1980), criticize each other's agenda for its particularism. Renfrew refers to the exaggerated focus on one single topic, like myth, evolution, ethnography and so on. On the other hand, Binford draws the attention towards his widely-known debate with Borde, a classic representer of the traditional approach (The Great Tradition as Renfrew prefers to call it) and claims, "my arguments with Bordes in the 1960s and 1970s were not focused on how he classified the stone tools. I questioned his assumptions that variability in stone-tool frequencies was referable exclusively to the ethnic identity of the makers. Instead, I thought of assemblages as varying combinations of suites of items for which the determinant condition of their regular association would be semi or completely independent from one another" (p. 673).
     Binford also sees problems with the theoretical framework of cognitive archaeology and its difficult association with first order observations. Moreover, at an inductive level between archaeological interpretation and explanation he gives prevalence to the second: "theory is not something one brings to data. Theory is developed to explain relational patterns among data that are analytically generated among different observational domains or dataset" (p. 676).
     He concludes by arguing for a strong role of the subject matter in the discipline and careful and systematic analysis of the patterning of data. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
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Bintliff, J.
1991 "Post-modernism, Rhetoric and Scholasticism at TAG: The Current State of British Archaeological Theory"
in Antiquity 65, pp. 274-278.
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Bintliff, John; Mark Pearce (eds.)
2011 The Death of Archaeological Theory?
Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 89.
     The Death of Archaeological Theory? addresses the provocative subject of whether it is time to discount the burden of somewhat dogmatic theory and ideology that has defined archaeological debate and shaped archaeology over the last 25 years. Seven chapters meet this controversial subject head on, also assessing where archaeological theory is now, and future directions. John Bintliff questions what theory is and argues that archaeologists should be freed from 'Ideopraxists', or those who preach that a single approach or model is right to the exclusion of all others. Marc Pluciennik again questions what we mean by archaeological theory and argues that the role of intellectual fashion is underestimated. He predicts pressure from outside archaeology to redirect our dominant theories towards genetic and human impact theory. Kristian Kristiansen argues that theory cannot die, but it can change direction and sees signs of a retreat from the present post-modern and post-processual cycle towards a more science based, rationalistic cycle of revived modernity. To Mark Pearce the most striking thing about the present state of archaeological theory is that there is no emerging paradigm to be discerned; he proposes that Theory is not dead, but has instead become more eclectic and nuanced. Two papers offer a different perspective from other areas of the world; Alexander Gramsch examines the issue from the German tradition and shows that in Central and Eastern Europe not only has Anglo-American Theory had limited impact, but current discussions on the future of method and theory offer a broader view of the discipline in which older traditions are seen to form the foundation. Kent Flannery and Joyce Marcus demonstrate that American archaeologists do not foresee the death of a genuinely archaeological theory (which they believe has never existed) but fear the real catastrophe would be the death of anthropological theory, because some anthropology today has become decidedly anti-scientific, rejecting not only the controlled comparison and contrast of cultures, but also the use of generalisation, both of which are crucial to theories and models and without which the longue duree will always be invisible. – [Publisher's summary]
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Bloch, Marc
1949 Apologie pour l'histoire ou métier d'historien
Cahiers des Annales n. 3. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin.
2.6.1
16.7
Excerpts
     In this book, published posthumously and unfinished, the author presents an in-depth reflection on the main issues connected to historical research. In so doing, Bloch uses an extremely modern approach, advocating methods which have many points in common with the "grammatical approach" proposed by Buccellati for archaeology. Anticipating some of the topics discussed in the second chapter of the Critical Theory, in fact, Bloch goes against the common idea that "l'Histoire est la science du passé" (p. 16): he considers it, instead, as a "science des hommes dans le temps" (p. 18). As a modern historian, he never escapes from a perspective focused on written sources; in a few cases, however, he shows how archaeology comes to the aid of the historian, by playing the role of a "witness" that, if questioned and interpreted properly, offers invaluable clues for the reconstruction of correct historical events.
     He is aware that "les textes, ou les documents archéologiques, fût-ce les plus clairs en apparence et les plus complaisants, ne parlent que lorsqu'on sait les interroger" (p. 40). Thus, describing events is not enough. Historical research must quest for the nexus among their causes and effects. Moreover, he shows his modern sensitivity by underlining the importance for an historian of being expert in the argument of his interest, but also versed in all the main topics involved in his own discipline. At the same time, he advocates the importance of the cooperation among specialists, willing to recreate a "universal history". In order to do this, he identifies two prerequisites: the willingness of working in teams and the agreement to some preliminary definitions and to a given lexicon.
     He stresses the importance of definitions and of clear chronological schemes: they must be instruments apt to indubitably identify the object of the research, but they must also be flexible enough to be able to adjust to new discoveries. This issue, similar to the grammatical approach suggested for archaeology that stresses the importance of the adherence to a common lexicon, is connected by Bloch to the issue of analysis. From his point of view, only after a proper classification of each element of the system can the whole be recomposed and explained, as a natural consequence of the process. – [Stefania Ermidoro, February 2014]
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Bogucki, Peter
1985 "Theoretical Directions in European Archaeology"
in American Antiquity 50.4, pp. 780-788.
2.1
2.5.2
14.6.4
16.2.1
16.2.2
     An evaluation of prehistoric studies in Europe, in a historical and topical dimension! Bogucki identifies a close connection of this tradition with that of the culture-historical approach where issues of chronology and interpretations of life-ways yet remain at the center of attention.
     The new development of the epistemology of theory lacks the implications of general laws, or formal theories (Read and LeBlanc 1978, Salmon 1978, 1982), focused mainly on topic-related subjects like those of symbolic behavior, sociology, systematics, economics, ecology, demography, geography and so on. Moreover, a close interconnection between these theoretical avenues with clearly defined methods and inductive analysis has never been questioned in the European environment. Bogucki goes on to mention several productive efforts occurring in the studies of the European Neolithic, prehistoric economy, demography, ecology and so on. A focus on the analysis of settlement pattern, assessment of environment, subsistence remains or mortuary practices has overshadowed the understanding of relational characteristics between the addressed theoretical subjects and the derived interpretations from inductive analysis. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Bohman, James
2015 "Critical Theory"
in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Winter 2015 edition.
Available online: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive [Accessed 25 July 2016].
15.3
     The approach usually referred to as 'Critical Theory' has both a broad and a narrow sense - in the narrow sense, it refers to the philosophical tradition represented by the Frankfurt School, while the broad sense includes other movements with essentially the same goal. A critical theory is a "social inquiry aimed at decreasing domination and increasing freedom in all their forms". Many approaches focussed on minority groups thus become part of critical theory. Additionally, critical theory is understood as "adequate only if it meets three criteria: it must be explanatory, practical, and normative, all at the same time. That is, it must explain what is wrong with current social reality, identify the actors to change it, and provide both clear norms for criticism and achievable practical goals for social transformation." – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
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Bollong, Charles A.
1994 "Analysis of Site Stratigraphy and Formation Processes Using Patterns of Pottery Sherd Dispersion"
in Journal of Field Archaeology 21, pp. 15-28.
2.3
15.10.5
Th: stratigraphy
     The volume collects the texts of some conferences held by Braudel in the years of confinement in two prison camps in Germany, between 1941 and 1944. "L'histoire, mesure du monde" is particularly interesting since it reflects and somehow anticipates the fundamental issues included in his major work La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II, which he wrote in these same years. Braudel himself describes it, in fact, as "un long plaidoyer en faveur d'une forme d'histoire, la recherche d'une méthode" (p. 15). From the first pages, he proposes a history that is grande "qui vise au général, capable d'extrapoler les details, de dépasser l'érudition et de saisir le vivant" (p. 16) and profonde "une histoire des hommes vue dans ses réalités collectives, dans l'évolution lente des structures" (p. 17).
     By bringing together History (as a science, and therefore written here with the capital H) and the methods usually attributed to the social sciences, Braudel voluntarily decides to adopt the approach proposed by Febvre and Bloch together with the Annales School. All the fundamental concepts of Braudel's theoretical method are summarized here: the emphasis on the collective nature of human mentalities, the critique of a history conceived as a mere record of human events, the advocacy for an approach that should be both scientific and sociological.
     Above all, the two main features of Braudel's are included in this text: firstly, the use of the longue durée approach against the the courte durée and the histoire événementielle, to stress the impact of the slow and somehow imperceptible effects of geographical, climatic, demographical, and technological factors on human societies. Secondly, the importance of an integrative approach which includes geography and history, that should create a new science called geohistory (using a neologism suggested by Braudel himself). – [Esmeralda Agolli, June 2014]
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Bradley, Richard
2006 "The Excavation Report as a Literary Genre: Traditional Practice in Britain"
in World Archaeology 38.4, pp. 664-671.
10.4.2
     This is an account of how standardised excavation reports are - to the extend that it could be called a literary genre in itself. Bradley describes the structure as follows, "First, there is the basic account of the excavated structures, their layout and development over time. The second element is the publication of specialist contributions which were generally concerned with artefacts, food remains and environmental evidence. The last component is a more general discussion of how the site should be interpreted and its wider implications for an understanding of the past" (p. 667). [cf. the structure recommended in how-to manuals like Joukowsky 1980, which closely follows the same]
     This structure has a historical background, following the advent of stratigraphy, typology and specialist fields. Bradley believes that there is no longer any reason that the components are kept separated in this manner and favours a much larger analytical and integrated aspect. Digital publication has the potential to aid in this goal and offer a more integrated or linked approach. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Braudel, Fernand
1997 "L'histoire, mesure du monde"
in R. De Ayala and P. Braudel (eds.), Les ambitions de l'Histoire.
Editions de Fallois: Paris, pp. 11-83.
     The volume collects the texts of some conferences held by Braudel in the years of confinement in two prison camps in Germany, between 1941 and 1944. "L'histoire, mesure du monde" is particularly interesting since it reflects and somehow anticipates the fundamental issues included in his major work La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II, which he wrote in these same years. Braudel himself describes it, in fact, as "un long plaidoyer en faveur d'une forme d'histoire, la recherche d'une m?thode" (p. 15). From the first pages, he proposes a history that is grande "qui vise au général, capable d'extrapoler les details, de dépasser l'érudition et de saisir le vivant" (p. 16) and profonde "une histoire des hommes vue dans ses réalités collectives, dans l'évolution lente des structures" (p. 17).
     By bringing together History (as a science, and therefore written here with the capital H) and the methods usually attributed to the social sciences, Braudel voluntarily decides to adopt the approach proposed by Febvre and Bloch together with the Annales School. All the fundamental concepts of Braudel's theoretical method are summarized here: the emphasis on the collective nature of human mentalities, the critic against a history conceived as a mere record of human events, the advocacy for an approach that should be at the same time scientific and sociological.
     Above all, the two main feature of Braudel's are included in this text: firstly, the use of the longue durée approach against the the courte durée and the histoire événementielle, to stress the impact of the slow and somehow imperceptible effects of geographical, climatic, demographical, and technological factors on human societies. Secondly, the importance of an integrative approach which include geography and history, that should bring to a new science called (using a neologism suggested by Braudel himself) geohistory. – [Stefania Ermidoro, May 2014]
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Breglia, Lisa
2006 Monumental Ambivalence: The Politics of Heritage
Austin: University of Texas Press.
10.7
     Touching on the important topic of ownership in archaeology, Breglia here uses developments in Yucatan (Mexico) as a case study. A move to allow privatisation of the management of archaeological sites in this area has widespread implications, both practically and conceptually. Interest groups (or "share holders") include national agencies, private companies, site employees, the population at large and local people. The topic illustrates archaeology's inevitable involvement with society and politics. The central question is 'Who owns the past?' (or does anybody?). At least by some groups, privatisation is in the case studies here seen as the selling out of cultural heritage, which is part of the collective identity of these groups. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Brittain, Charles
2008 "Arcesilaus"
in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Fall 2008 edition.
Available online: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive [Accessed 25 July 2016].
16.9.1
     The concept of epoché was used by the Greek philosopher Arcesilaus as part of his skeptical approach. This involved the universal suspencion of assent - i.e. refraining from any positive arguments or affirmation of any kind because nothing can be known on the basis of philosophical theory alone [although see article for possible inconsistencies in Arcesilaus' position]. – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
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Browman, David L.; Douglas R. Givens
1996 "Stratigraphic Excavation: The First New Archaeology"
in American Anthropologist 98.1, pp. 80-95.
2.3
15.10.5
15.12.4
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     The paper contains many facts and analyses. It is conceptualized on a historical framework focused on the emergence of stratigraphic excavation in the so-called era of 'New Archaeology'. Several practitioners including Nelson, Petrie, Kidder, Wissler, Kidder, and Boas mark the seminal efforts on the matter. It mainly examines the reasoning behind the development of the systematic method of stratigraphic excavation as part of data collection. This discussion noted an increasing popularity at the beginning of the twentieth century of prioritizing the displacement of portable artifacts (Nelson) or the records of the topographical information (Flinders). Further developments carried out by Boas, Kidder, Reisner and Wissler established solid excavation techniques based on the consecutive investigation of layers and the separate analysis of the units. What seems to have remained rather questionable in reltaion to these efforts was that the American scholars only managed to construct a unilinear tradition deeply rooted in the cultural premise which named this approach 'cultural stratigraphy'. – [Esmeralda Agolli, July 2014]
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Brown, Clifford
2010 "Reflections on Metaarchaeology"
in Philip Blosser and Thomas Nenon (eds.), Advancing Phenomenology. Essays in Honor of Lester Embree.
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 391-400.
15.13
15.14
16.1
     A lucid overview of Lester Embree's contributions to the relationship between archaeology and philosophy. The first part deals with Embree's philosophy of archaeology (pp. 393-398). Embree assigns a place or pre-eminence to archaeology within the social sciences, considering it as "the most basic of the positive sciences". Brown notices a sense of inferiority in archaeologists, who tend, partly because of the prevailing positivistic attitude, to consider exact sciences like physics as having a predominant position. More importantly, Embree develops a theory of archaeolgical cognition, through which he "analyze[s] the cognitive and epistemological basis of our understanding of the archaeological 'record'" (p. 396). What Embree discusses, then, is the nature and limits of the inference. As Brown notes, this contrasts with post-processual relativism, as well as with that of "latter day archaeological phenomenologists" (p. 397). [The notion of "archaeological cognition" and its phenomenological justification serves as a sort of preliminary to the direction I pursue in this essay.] Embree explicitly rejects a hermeneutic approach to archaeology, but this is in terms of the (relativistic) hermeneutics associated with Hodder (p. 398).
     The second part deals with empirical studies of American theoretical archaeology (pp. 398-399). It is especially Embree's systematic and almost "ethnographic" approach in investigating the New Archaeology (or "American Theoretical Archaeology", as he called it) that retains Brown's attention. The term metaarchaeology was introduced to refer to "secondary, reflective and non-substantive research". Embree's works in this area are work in progress towards his planned The Rise of American Theoretical Archaeology. – [Giorgio Buccellati, May 2014]
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Brown, James A.
1982 "On the Structure of Artifact Typology"
in Whallon & Brown 1982, pp. 176-189.
3.5.2
     The paper offers an overview of the theoretical discussion on the structure and definition of concepts in artifact typologies. Beyond the formal order or organization of an assemblage the construction of typology must serve as an objective reflection of the environment and context in which artifacts are formed and produced. It is due to this understanding that approaches like that of the type-variety (Keesing, Colton) which only focus on a clear association between artifacts and their pertinent cultural unit are considered as highly formal, not revealing a broader understanding on the properties of an assemblage. By taking this into account Brown highlights the subject matters that best inform the meaning and the relationship of attributes within an assemblage. Thus the totality of attributes is classified according to functional or stylistic types/terms (see Sackett 1977, Wobst 1977), placing morphological attributes above these two. To this extent, the understanding of the properties of the data (assemblage, burial practices) elucidates issues related to technology, information exchange and social, cultural and economic background. Brown extensively evaluates the quantitative typology, recognizing this as a crucial tool that avoids the intuitive decisions in the process, focusing on the objective measurement of significant groupings (types) and attribute relationships. – [Esmeralda Agolli, April 2014]
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Brughmans, Tom
2012 "Thinking Through Networks: A Review of Formal Network Methods in Archaeology"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 20.4, pp. 623-662.
13.5.3
     Good introduction to the use of network methods and their history in archaeology, along with potential future uses. – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
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Buccellati, Federico A.
2013 Three-dimensional Volumetric Analysis in an Archaeological Context
The Palace of Tupkish at Urkesh and its Representation
PhD dissertation, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität zu Frankfurt am Main, p. 436.
13.5.7
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Buccellati, Giorgio
1966 The Amorites of the Ur III Period
Ricerche, Volume I. Napoli: Istituto Orientale, pp. XVIII-380, Plates XIV.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
11.9.2
1977 "The Old Babylonian Linguistic Analysis Project: Goals, Procedures and First Results"
in Proceeding of the International Conference of Computational Linguistics, pp. 385-404.
13.5.7
1981 "Stratigraphic Sections"
in Brian Dillon (ed.), The Student's Guide to Archaeological Illustrating.
Archaeological Research Tools, Vol 1. Los Angeles: Institute of Archaeology, University of California, pp. 17-21.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
5.4
10.3.4
1981 "The Origin of Writing and the Beginning of History"
in Giorgio Buccellati and Charles Speroni (eds.), The Shape of the Past: Studies in Honor of Franklin D. Murphy.
Institute of Archaeology and Office of the Chancellor, University of California, Los Angeles, pp. 3-13.
11.1.1
     The paper offers a theoretical emphasis on the introduction, origin, importance, value and impact of writing in society. Beside drastically changing communication within ancient society, writing also comprises an invaluable and insightful source of information for modern studies and research.
     The paper has a dual emphasis on historic and historiographic premises. The historic deals with the importance of writing and its invention, considered a stepping stone in the so-called process of 'urban revolution'. The historiographic premise, on the other hand, examines the potential of writing to offer a higher degree of specificity for the transmission and the quantitative increase of information conveyed either synchronically or diachronically in a society. Insightful comments on the composition of writing are covered by two approaches: representational and graphemic.
     Further, the paper discusses the relation between symbols and actions, which have contributed to the creation of contiguous linguistic devices. Writing serves as the final phase of this innovative procedure. Buccellati wonders: how did such a process become accepted and understood, effective and practical? In particular, he deals with the evolution of writing and the technical antecedents (the syntactical and non-syntactical categories).
     Lastly, the paper focuses on the positive impact of writing in cultural and human (mental and physical) evolution and its immediate influence on what Buccellati calls the first extrasomatic extension of logical brain function. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
1981 "Principles of Stylistic Analysis"
in Y.L. Arbeitmann and A.R. Bomhard (eds.), Bono Homini Donum: Essays in Historical Linguistics, in Memory of J. Alexander Kerns.
Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 807-836.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
7.6
1990 "On Poetry - Theirs and Ours"
in T. Abusch, J. Huehnergdard & P. Steinkeller (eds.), Lingering over Words: Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Literature in Honor of William L. Moran.
Harvard Semitic Studies 37.
Atlanta: Scholars Press, pp. 105-134.
Available online
16.3.2
2000 "On Poetry and Friendship: Linear and Tensional Elements in the Old Babylonian Episode of Gilgamesh and Enkidu"
in P. Negri Scafa & P. Gentili (eds.), Donum Natalicium: Studi in onore di Claudio Saporetti in occasione del suo 60° compleanno.
Rome: Borgia, pp. 63-76.
Available online
16.3.2
2004 "Il secondo millennio nella memoria epica di Giuda e Israele"
in Rivista Teologica di Lugano 9, pp. 521-543.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
Th: broken traditions
2006 "On (e)-tic and -emic"
in Backdirt. Newsletter of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Winter 2006, pp. 12-13.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
3.4.1
2006 "An Archaeologist on Mars"
in S. Gitin, J.E. Wright and J.P. Dessel (eds.), Confronting the Past: Archaeological and Historical Essays on Ancient Israel in Honor of William G. Dever.
Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, pp. 17-21.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
2.5.2
15.6
Th: broken traditions
2010 "The Semiotics of Ethnicity: The Case of Hurrian Urkesh"
in J. Fincke (ed.), Festschrift für Gernot Wilhelm anläßlich seines 65. Geburtstages am 28. Januar 2010.
Dresden: ISLET, pp. 79-90.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
14.6.4
15.12.4
16.4.2
     The theoretical presuppositions for the application of distributional classes to ethnicity as a topic documented only from archaeological sources. – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
2012 "Quando in alto i cieli..." La spiritualità mesopotamica a confronto con quella biblica
Milano: Jaca Book.
Th: broken traditions
2012 "Towards a Linguistic Model for Archaeology"
in Revue d'assyriologie et d'archaeologie orientale 106, 2012/1, pp. 37-43.
17.4
Th: inference
2013 "The History of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology as a Research Paradigm"
in Backdirt: Annual Review of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA, pp. 14-20.
Th: inference
2013 "When Were the Hurrians Hurrian? The Persistence of Ethnicity in Urkesh"
in Joan Aruz, Sarah B. Graff & Yelena Rakic (eds.), Cultures in Contact: From Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C.
New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 84-95.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
14.6.4
16.4.2
Th: identity: food
     An example of the application of distributional classes to ethnicity as a topic documented only from archaeological sources. – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
     The author deals with the concept of "ethnicity," emphasizing the semiotic aspect of the phenomenon: he states that "ethnic identity relies on the interrelationship of a complex set of signs" (p. 84), and thus the goal of modern scholars is to study the valence of such signs in order to recognize the presence and nature of the ancient ethnic bond. While trying to identify the data related to Urkesh and its ancient population, Buccellati poses the question of the correct method that must be applied in the research on broken traditions. He finds a solution in the identification of distributional classes whose appropriateness and accuracy is ensured by virtue of their complexity and validation from archaeological data.
     He discusses, then, the concrete embodiments taken by intangible phenomena like language (written texts and onomastics), religion (sacred buildings and objects), style (architecture and art) and social customs (dresses and cuisine). All these phenomena have left traces on the ground, and archaeology helps in recovering and interpreting them: a correct semiotic analysis of all these clues, properly ordered and interrelated, allows a precise identification of cultural and social traits belonging to broken traditions. – [Stefania Ermidoro, November 2014]
2013 Alle origini della politica. La formazione e lo sviluppo dello stato in Siro-Mesopotamia
Milano: Jaca Book.
15.10.2
16.6.1
     Develops in detail the notion of "invention" especially as applied to the landscape, investigating the impact that this had on political awareness. – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2014]
2013 "Conquista del tempo ed evento assoluto: per una semiotica dei calendari mesopotamico e biblico"
in Silvano Petrosino (ed.), La festa. Raccogliersi, riconoscersi, smarrirsi.
Milano: Jaca Book, pp. 23-33.
Available online: www.giorgiobuccellati.net.net
16.6.1
2014 "The Threefold Invention of Time: Transcendental, Transcendent, Trans-temporal"
in Euresis Journal 7, pp. 69-85.
Available online: Euresis Journal
Th: broken traditions
     The broken tradition between hominins and humans. – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2014]
2016 "The Transcendental Revolution"
in H. Amstutz, A. Dorn, M. Müller, M. Ronsdorf, S. Uljas (eds.), Fuzzy Boundaries. Festschrift für Antonio Loprieno.
Hamburg: Widmaier, 2015. Vol. I, pp. 47-54.
12.5
Th: broken traditions
M: Kant/para-perception
2017 Critique of Archaeological Reason. Structural, Digital and Philosophical Aspects of the Archaeological Record.
New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cited as CAR in this website. See publisher's link.
forthc. The Four Republics
Eerdmans.
12.5
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Buccellati, Giorgio; Olivier Rouault
1983 "Terqa Preliminary Report, N. 12: Digital Plotting of Archaeological Floor Plans"
in Computer Aided Research in Near Eastern Studies 1/1, pp. 3-40.
13.5.7
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Bulhof, Ilse N.
1980 Wilhelm Dilthey. A Hermeneutic Approach to the Study of History and Culture
The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
15.1
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Burdick, Anne; Johanna Drucker; Peter Lunenfeld; Todd Presner; Jeffrey Schnapp
2012 Digital Humanities
Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.
11.6
Reviews
     An in-depth approach, it sees the subject as a provocation, in fact, as a series of "provocations" (Part 4): this is meant to underscore the novelty of the digital dimension within humanities, and to explore the response these provocations are receiving. – [Giorgio Buccellati]
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Burke, Heather; Claire Smith
2004 The Archaeologist's Field Handbook
Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
2.8.1
2.8.2
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     A basic guide to field work, including survey and excavation, pre- and post-excavation concerns. Very detailed and practical. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Buschor, E.
1969 "Begriff und Methode der Archaeologie"
in U. Hausmann (ed.), Allgemeine Grundlagen der Archäologie, pp. 3-10.
     Buschor's definition of archaeology reads: "den durchs Auge aufnehmbaren Teil der Menschheitsgeschichte." (3) The importance of objects lies with their appearance, but it is also conditioned by context. A search for meaning and an imagination play an important role in the research done by an archaeologist, even if they are not artists. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Bush, Vannevar
1945 "As We May Think"
in Atlantic Monthly 176, pp. 101-108.
Available online: www.theatlantic.com/magazine/print/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881
     As Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Dr. Vannevar Bush has coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare. In this significant article he holds up an incentive for scientists when the fighting has ceased. He urges that men of science should then turn to the massive task of making more accessible our bewildering store of knowledge. For years inventions have extended man's physical powers rather than the powers of his mind. Trip hammers that multiply the fists, microscopes that sharpen the eye, and engines of destruction and detection are new results, but not the end results, of modern science. Now, says Dr. Bush, instruments are at hand which, if properly developed, will give man access to and command over the inherited knowledge of the ages. The perfection of these pacific instruments should be the first objective of our scientists as they emerge from their war work. Like Emerson's famous address of 1837 on "The American Scholar," this paper by Dr. Bush calls for a new relationship between thinking man and the sum of our knowledge. – [Editor's abstract]
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Calvin, William H.; Derek Bickerton
2001 Lingua Ex Machina: Reconciling Darwin and Chomsky with the Human Brain
London: MIT Press.
14.11
     In this book, the authors attempt to explain the origins of language by combining biology with evolution. Solving or understanding the structural basis for one of our higher intellectual functions may in fact solve them all. Language is here seen as biologically determined. The concept of proto-language is a "stage intermediate between no language and full language" (p. 104). Some of the theories explaining the origin of language are based on 1) individual names (that is, names of specific individuals, not a group term such as 'frog' or 'dog'), 2) the increasing requirements of a complex social life, and 3) so-called theories of mind, essentially the problem of intersubjectivity in philosophical terms. The authors here argue that these are not adequate explanations, and instead speculate that language acquisition did not require intelligence, but was as a result of the basic need to convey information.
     A 'selective pressure for language' (required in order to explain its occurrence in evolutionary terms - the proto-language would need an immediate payoff, or it would not have developed) appeared specific to the human species in the form of predation risks and food availability (finding and knowing food sources). The exact time when this 'Magic Moment' happened is not known. – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
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Campbell, Ewan; Rob Leiper
2013 "Digging Deeper in the Archaeological Psyche"
in Antiquity 87.336, pp. 589-596.
10.7
     This paper is in the format of a dialogue between an archaeologist interested in psychology and a psychologist interested in archaeology. The discussion is about possible psychological features and reasons behind individual archaeologists' choice of career. The fascination with dirt, looking and fragmentation are some of the topics that come up. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Carandini, Andrea
2000 Storie dalla terra. Manuale di scavo archeologico
Torino: Giulio Einaudi, 20002 (first edition 1991).
5.1
15.10.1
15.12.1
Th: stratigraphy
     The section entitled "Going backwards" ("Procedere all'indietro"), pp. 249-257, is particularly interesting for the special approach he takes to the way in which a detective story proceeds from given clues. He gives pride of place to Sherlock Holmes, who is essentially a chemist and an anatomist, while Watson is explicitly a surgeon (and this is in line with the fact that Conan Doyle himself was trained as a medical doctor (p. 249 f.). Carandini takes position against Ginzburg 1979 "Spie," who had contrasted the clue based paradigm ("paradigma indiziario") of the human sciences to the Galielean paradigm, as being more rigorous. Carandini objects that archaeology is, instead, just as rigorous. [In my oponion, his argument would be strengthened by a more epxlicit reference to the materiality of the clues employed in a crime investigation, which offers the real similarity to archaseological reason.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, December 2014]
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Carman, John
2006 "Digging the Dirt: Excavation as a Social Practice"
in Edgeworth 2006, pp. 95-102.
2.8.1
8.1
Th: excavation
     An essay about the social archaeology of excavation and what archaeology does to the world. Commonly, the crew (like the crew of a ship) is isolated from the rest of the world, giving an 'in the wild' kind of experience. The embodied experience, social activities, and individuality through for example worn toolkits are discussed. "The practice of excavation is central to archaeology for two linked reasons: it is a primary source of data for analysis and interpretation, and it is by doing excavation that archaeologists are made." (p. 98). – [Laerke Recht, October 2014]
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Carr, Christopher (ed.)
1985 For Concordance in Archaeological Analysis. Bridging Data Structure, Quantitative Technique and Theory
Kansas City: Westport Publishers, Inc., pp. xx-622.
8.5
13.2.3
     In the introduction (pp. 1-17), Carr explains that, in light of the burgeoning of interest in statistical analysis in archaeology, the need has arisen to look at the philosophical presuppositions, especially in terms of the philosophy of science. "Concordance" refers to the logical congruence between data and theory on the one hand ("etic coherence") and technique and theory on the other ("emic coherence") (pp. 4-7). Discordance refers then to the discrepancy between the terms of the two binomials, and this results especially from degrees of selectivity in the data (8-10). – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2015]
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Carr, Nicholas
2008 "Is Google Making Us Stupid? What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains"
in The Atlantic, July/august 2008.
Available online: Online version
12.2.5
12.4.1
12.6.6
     The author meditates on the changes in reading habits caused by online and computer activity as opposed to printed books. He believes that our increased time looking / reading from screens has caused a lack of concentration. Online or screen activity is seen as surfing (closely associated with the word 'surface'), as opposed to diving or in-depth reading of printed books (Carr's analogy goes, "Once I was a scuba diver in the sea of words. Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski"). This is particularly interesting in light of the discussion of ways of reading and hyperlinks and footnotes in CAR (section 12.2). Concerning footnotes vs. hyperlinks, "tripping from link to link. (Unlike footnotes, to which they are sometimes likened, hyperlinks don't merely point to related works; they propel you toward them".
     The new way of online reading may even go as far as change the very process of thinking and causing neurological transformations in the brain - so far, we still do not know the extent of this, or whether it may be seen as a positive or negative development. Carr notes how even the hardware can change how we think and express ourselves, using as an example Nietzsche's transition from hand writing to a typewriter with a corresponding change in writing style (in the words of Nietzsche, "our writing equipment takes part in the forming of our thoughts"). – [Laerke Recht, November 2016]
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Carstairs-McCarthy, Andrew
1999 The Origins of Complex Language: An Inquiry into the Evolutionary Beginnings of Sentences, Syllables, and Truth
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
14.11
     This investigation into the origins of complex human language combines biology with studies of childhood. Carstairs-McCarthy takes the very interesting approach of identifying unusual features of human language - features that are common to all human languages and that we are so accustomed to that we do not notice them. Three 'peculiarities' identified by Carstairs-McCarthy are vocabulary size, duality of patterning and the distinction between sentences and noun phrases. He proceeds to demonstrate how language does not necessarily have to have these aspects, and this may have implications for understanding why and how human language came about. The discussion also includes a survey of pertinent archaeological and anthropological material that has been used to argue for (or against) the presence of complex language (e.g. evidence of symbolism, certain types of tools). – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Carver, Geoff
2011 "Reflections on the Archaeology of Archaeological Excavations"
in Archaeological Dialogues 18.1, pp. 18-26.
2.1
2.3.1
2.8.1
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     Carver provides a short discussion about the definition and history of archaeology and what it really is or is seen to be: contrary to common belief among archaeologists, excavation was not from the beginning or a core of the discipline, and 'archaeology' is by no means the same in every country. "The point is this: Kemble was arguing that his 'archaeology' was a science simply because its data could be classified, whereas we would now say that science comes with trying to explain such 'arrangements'." (p. 22). – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
2012 "How to Archaeologize with a Hammer"
in H. Cobb, O.J.T. Harris, C. Jones & P. Richardson (eds.), Reconsidering Archaeological Fieldwork: Exploring On-Site Relationships between Theory and Practice.
Springer, pp. 15-29.
2.8.1
15.10.4
15.13
     We here see a rare instance of a discussion of stratigraphy (or rather the lack of it) in theoretical discourses in archaeology. Carver regrets that this is so uncommon and takes us through some of the history and possible reasons for it, including the very different attitude to theory of archaeologists in different countries (in fact, in some places, theory is not considered part of archaeology at all). – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
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Carver, Geoff; Matthias Lang
2013 "Reflections on the Rocky Road to E-Archaeology"
in Earl et al. 2013, pp. 224-236.
2.1
2.7.1
13.1
Th: stratigraphy
     Carver and Lang discuss their attempt to implement 'ArchaeInf' in Germany. The system incorporates data from various sites and bring together the different recording systems used for each project. Archaeology, placed as it is between humanities and science, is an ideal discipline for digital applications - also due to the large amount of data involved. The main problem encountered by the authors came from potential users, who were reluctant to embrace the system, partly due to proprietary interest of making 'their' data available, and partly due to a lack of technological skill.
     The authors point out that recording and type of documentation have the potential to shape interpretation, "the results of archaeological research will be different if the documentation is recorded on paper than if it is recorded digitally (i.e. 'the medium is the message'): 'Each recording medium (text, digital and still photography, video and audio) forces an archaeologist to take a different angle from which to observe and discuss the subject'." (p. 226, quoting Stevanovic 2000, p. 238).
     Regarding the definition of the field of archaeology, we can also note several considerations:
     1) When doing archaeology, we perform a double task, "Archaeology is further complicated by the fact that it has a double narrative (cf. Binford 2001: 46): we need to consider both the metaphysics of the events in the past and those of the archaeological investigation." (p. 227)
     2) Archaeology is fragmented into sub-fields, which often results in fragmented analyses and narratives
     3) 'Archaeology' means something different in various countries, often based in different histories of the discipline. These histories, with links to e.g. prehistory, art history, anthropology and geology, are strongly reflected in archaeological practice and institutional organisation even today. – [Laerke Recht, January 2015]
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Carver, Martin
2005 "Key Ideas in Excavation"
in Renfrew & Bahn 2005, pp. 79-83.
4.6.3
Th: excavation
     Short outline of some of the practical types of excavation that occur or has occurred. These depend on the strategies of the excavator, and may also be determined by the type of site and its natural environment. Some of the concepts discussed include total excavation, single context recording and open area excavation. Carver also presents post-processual concepts of reflexivity, multi-vocality and Cunliffe's 'Levels of Publication'. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Casey, Edward S.
2004 "Public Memory in Place and Time"
in Kendall Phillips (ed.), Framing Public Memory.
Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, pp. 17-44.
Downloadable at edwardscasey.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/public_memory_in_place_and_time.pdf
8.12
Th: broken traditions
     Besides individual, social and collective memory (pp. 20-24), Casey analyzes in detail the notion of public memory, which is fed by the previous three. It is "bivalent in temporality," because it is "attached to the past" and yet "acts to ensure a future" (p.17; see also. p. 31); it "serves as an encircling horizon" (p. 25), meaning that it provides a frame for private individual memories (the Husserlian concept of horizon recurs often in the text, see esp. p. 30). "Being public does not guarantee constancy over time: to be public is to be subject to continual reassessment and revision" (p. 29).
     This reassessment has a bearing on the concept of broken traditions: "a given event in public memory is subject to two forms of revision on the part of the public itself: first, a discovery of a glaringly part of its content; second, a reassessment of its primary significance as a wider, or simply different, ethical or historical context arises" p. 29).
     Even more pertinent for an understanding of broken traditions is the remark that public memory contributes in an essential way to the sense of group identity (p. 37), as the "indispensable core of the public sphere... [which] would not be possible were it not for the enabling presence of public memory at its fringes. This memory, not unlike the walls of the city [a nice metaphor!] literally defines the terms of the agon, providing the conditions within which open dialogue can happen" (p. 31).
     Public memory is also essentially tied to a public space (such as the agora), a public presence (confrontation through proximity), and public discussion (p. 32f.), as well as common topic and commemoration in place (p. 33f.).
     In the concluding remarks, reference is made (p.39) to ways to deal with given places, such as the extermination camps of Buchenwald and Dachau [the latter being a case of damnatio memoriae]. The importance of place is stressed [which is significant for archaeology, given the physical nature of its data]: "on the one hand, ... place is part of public memory in the making. ... On the other hand, place remains central to a more fully consolidated public memory that has become a horizon for the future remembering of many others, not only of those present at the moment of making" (p. 41f.).
     Throughout, vivid examples experienced by the author in New York after September 11 are given.
     Casey deals extensively with the notion of memory from other points of view, see http://edwardscasey.com/?page_id=13 and see also A. Cruz-Pierre and D. A. Landes, Exploring the Work of Edward S. Casey. Giving Voice to Place, Memory, and Imagination. London: Bloomsbury, 2013. – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2014]
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Cassirer, Ernst
1921 Zur Einsteinschen Relativitätstheorie
Berlin: Bruno Cassirer.
14.5.2
14.10.1
1923 Philosophie der symbolischen Formen. Teil 1: Die Sprache
Berlin: Bruno Cassirer.
1925 Philosophie der symbolischen Formen. Teil 2: Das mythische Denken
Berlin: Bruno Cassirer.
     "Mythical consciousness" is seen as being between the immediacy of perception and the mediation effort of "metrical" reasoning (p. 107). Cassirer sets up a precise morphology ("Formenlehre") of myth by analyzing, with great insight the dimensions of space, time and number. In the case of space, for example, the case is made for a homogeneity of the parts within the framework of scientific thought, whereby the elements are, as it were, deprived of content and derive their value only from their correlation; whereas in mythical consciousness any single component is endowed with a measure of full content that mirrors the whole. [Scientific thought may then be interpreted in terms of a referential system, where correlation as such exhausts the definition of the item; hence the grammatical nature of the analysis.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2013]
1925 Philosophie der symbolischen Formen. Teil 3. Phänomenologie der Erkenntnis
Berlin: Bruno Cassirer.
14.11
1936 "Critical Idealism as a Philosophy of Culture"
in Verene 1979 pp. 64-91.
1945 "Structuralism in Modern Linguistics"
in Word 1, pp. 99-120.
     [This was given as a lecture at the Linguistic Circle of New York, an event missed by Lévi-Strauss, see Caws 1997 Structuralism, p. 43.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2013]
2000 "Substanzbegriff und Funktionsbegriff"
in Gesammelte Werke Hamburger Ausgabe Vol. VI.
Hamburg: Felix Meiner.
Substance and Function (engl. trans. Dover ed. 1953).
3.4.1
14.4.1
Excerpts
     In his Substanzsbegriff und Funktionsbegriff Cassirer offers an example of how to deal, starting from his Kantian legacy, with the challenges posed by the philosophical context in the first decade of the twentieth century. A first point of interest arises therefore already from the historical context of the opera. After the idealistic era, the rise of science, both natural and "human" sciences such as psychology and phenomenology, the Kantian framework has to be presented in a new fashion. As for the context of CAR, Cassirer's work can be seen as a rigorous, and to a certain extent less problematic than Kant's, view of relationality, i.e. the particular relations between the elements of a system. What in CAR is called a systemic overlay of a -etic (open) system by a -emic (close) system is, in Cassirer's terms, a case of the relation between a law and its cases, or between an equation and its solutions.
     The concept of knowledge
     The strict separation between sensibility and intellect (Sinnlichkeit and Verstand) whose union gives birth to knowledge [see section Tensionality, in the Digital Monograph on Kant] in the Kantian sense, becomes less stressed, in favor of a "coherentist" concept of knowledge. Instead as a modeling of the matter of sensations through the formal categories, Cassirer defines a case of correct knowledge as one which, within a given system, is capable of representing the whole of that given level of reality – i.e. the system itself. The reference is founded on a symbolization sustained by the relation to validity. The latter is applied to the formal structures, which constitutes the backbone of every scientific knowledge, and which can therefore be represented through abstract symbols: "the particular element that serves as a sign, is indeed not materially similar to the totality that is signified, - for the relations constituting the totality cannot be fully expressed and 'copied' by any particular formation, - but a thoroughgoing logical community subsist between them, in so far as both belong in principle to the same system of explanation" (p. 285).
     Through particular acts – called "logical acts" a state of affairs is integrated in that precise wider frame of regularities, which defines a particular "field of experience," such as field of sensual perceptions, or even fields involving timeless relationships, such as the ordinal's number system.
     System and singularities
     An experience is thus defined as scientific, or objective, when a complete definition of the set of fixed relationships is reached, to the point at which the object itself is defined as the result of the overlapping of different dependencies within a single system or of systems themselves, "it is thus a logical differentiation of the content of experience and their arrangement in an ordered system of dependencies, that constitutes the real kernel of the concept of reality" (p. 280). As single quantum of experience is, as such, related to other, and the entire "web" of relationships defining the system is not given per se, but rather appears together with the object itself, as the sum of its conditions. The object is consequently defined as a symbol, or a sign for the system, thanks to the logical acts, which are responsible for the constitution of the object within the system. Constitution must be understood as a determination of the dependent parts of experience – i.e. the variable parts – by the invariable and formal "reasons."
     Unlike Kant, Cassirer to a greater extent stresses the possibility of various levels of determination, and consequently of "validity." For example, a common sensory perception represents, compared to a dream or an hallucination, a significant step forward; though, from a scientific point of view – say physic's – the perception remains quite sketchy and vague in content. This does not mean that perceptions as such are not objective, but rather that they are capable of being integrated at more than one level. Cassirer seems then to leave aside the strict Kantian divisions [see CAR 14.4 for the application of this intuition] between matter of sensations, form of the categories and noumena. – [Stefano Fabio Rossi, November 2014]
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Catuneanu, Octavian
2006 Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy
Amsterdam: Elsevier.
15.10.5
     This book is on a specific approach in geology called sequence stratigraphy. This approach integrates the methods of sedimentology and stratigraphy in order to understand processes, create correlations and make predictions. It is used both academically to understand earth's processes and commercially to e.g. locate natural resources. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Cauvin, J.
1994 Nascita delle divinità nascita dell'agricoltura. La rivoluzione dei simboli del Neolitico
Milano: Jaca Book.
14.7.2
     1. The intention of the author. – In his work, Cauvin proposes a new interpretation of what has been called the Neolithic Revolution. The events of that period profoundly influenced the following human evolution: the current conception concerning not only the exploitation of the environment, but also the culture and mental structures, comes from the Neolithic Revolution. Cauvin believes that the Neolithic Revolution was the result of mental attitudes and cultural events, and not primarily of ecological changes. Thus he sheds new light on the spiritual dimension.
     2. The interpretation of some religious data. – During the late Paleolithic period in the area of the Levant we see the diffusion of many zoomorphic representations that illustrate different groups of animals. No dominant character is ever represented and there is never a painted divine figure. By contrast, around 9500 B.C., at the beginning of the agricultural revolution, in the same zone, in a context of hunting and gathering, we see the beginning of the production of many images of human females connected with a bull figure for all the Neolithic period. These female figures will be important for the whole Neolithic period. The humanization of art with these female representations develops throughout the following period, leading to their dominant position in the iconography of the Neolithic period. Because of this, the female figure appears to be the symbol of a divine figure with all other figures dependant on her for their meaning and stature. In many architectural complexes the woman is interpreted as a Mother Goddess and the zoomorphic figure of a bull is subordinate to her. The importance of the connection between the woman and the bull is explained by the writer in relation to the fact that this representation was developed before the birth of agriculture. Many consider the economic aspects of the agricultural revolution to be the origin of these cultural changes. Instead, Cauvin argues that this connection between woman and bull had spread before the agricultural revolution. His conclusion, based on these two figures and their association, is that there was a cultural change even before an economic revolution. In his view, something had changed in human minds. As proof of this, he refers to another image. During the tenth millennium B.C., another new image appears, representing a man in prayer with arms raised to the sky. He seems to pray to God. Cauvin thinks that this attitude identifies a lack in man who, because of this lack, seeks help from God. This image demonstrated the tragic situation of man who needs God. He reaches the conclusion that there was an existential problem that generated a cultural and intellectual change. This absence, felt by man, is transformed into a dynamic force that led man to make new images (the woman, bull and man in prayer) and to discover agriculture.
     3. The criteria of interpretation. – Cauvin's interpretation of these data seems convincing. However, the author does not specify the methodology he uses to arrive at his conclusions and we must suppose there are criteria that are not spelled out. These criteria seem to be simple. First, there is always a strict respect for the chronological order of events. The writer follows a temporal sequence of facts: the evidence is given by some representations showing a symbolic transformation, attested before the economic revolution. Secondly, the archeological finds appear frequently in that same period. There is more than one representation, for example, of the man in prayer; a substantial number of this same figure appeared where they did not exist before. – [Elisabetta Cremonesi, October 2014]
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Caws, Peter
1997 Structuralism. A Philosophy for the Human Sciences
Contemporary Studies in Philosophy and the Human Sciences.
Atlantic Highlands (NJ): Humanities Press, 19972 (first edition 1988).
1.1.5
14.1
14.4.2
14.6.5
14.8
     [A very insightful book, which goes well beyond the level of an introduction and assesses the deeper and lasting value of structural analysis. This is particularly relevant for the emphasis given in Critical Theory to the concept of structure (15).] – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
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Chang, K.C.
1978 "Some Theoretical Issues in the Archaeological Study of Historical Reality"
in Dunnell & Hall 1978, pp. 13-26.
     1. Archaeological models. A model is identified with structure, following Kroeber 1948 Anthropology [and Lévi-Strauss 1948 Anthropologie], and "historical reality is the essence of what really happened in the past in an area or within a population" (p. 14). A model is a conceptual tool: a hypothesized order of things is a structural model, and hypothesized law is an explanatory model: settlement patterns are an example (p. 15f).
     2. The archaeologist, "as a specialized historian dealing with the remains of history rather than written records" (p.18).
     3. Time: chronological ordering has assumed particular importance within archaeology.
     4. Classification: "Are archaeological types 'designed' or 'discovered'?" Chang distinguishes four types – physical (measurable, as with colors), cognitive (what 'natives' think), linguistic (what 'natives' label), behavioral (what 'natives' produce). So, how can the 'native' mind be read? By designing models and then seeing if an equivalent can be discovered (p. 22). "The interrelationship of these four typologies, and the archaeological method and technique by which these typologies can be diiscovered and differentiated, are among the most exciting issues in theoretical archaeology today and in years to come." Chang refers to objections by Binford and Klejn by saying that the validity of the classes depends on the "collective ideology of a prehistoric people or a group within it". He deals thereby with cognitive elements of archaeology. (p. 24) – [Giorgio Buccellati, December 2013]
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Chao, Tiffany C.; Melissa H. Cragin; Carole L. Palmer
2015 "Data Practices and Curation Vocabulary (DPCVocab):
An Empirically Derived Framework of Scientific Data Practices and Curatorial Processes"
in Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 66, pp. 616-633.
Available online: http://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23184
     Conceptual frameworks and taxonomies are an important part of the emerging base of knowledge on the curation of research data. We present the Data Practices and Curation Vocabulary (DPCVocab), a functional vocabulary created for specifying relationships among data practices in research, types of data produced and used, and curation roles and activities. The vocabulary consists of 3 categories - Research Data Practices, Data, and Curation - with 187 terms validated through empirical studies of scientific data practices in the Earth and life sciences. The present article covers the DPCVocab development process and examines applications for mapping relationships across the 3 categories, identifying factors for projecting curation costs and important differences in curation requirements across disciplines. As a tool for curators, the vocabulary provides a framework for charting curation options and guiding systematic administration of curation services. It can serve as a shared terminology or lingua franca to support interactions and collaboration among curators, data producers, system developers, and other stakeholders in data infrastructure and services. The DPCVocab as a whole supports both the technical and the human aspects of professional curation work essential to the modern research system. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Chase-Dunn, C.; T. Hall
1993 "Comparing World-Systems: Concepts and Working Hypotheses"
in Social Forces 71.4, pp. 851-886.
     Chase-Dunn and Hall present a study of comparisons of the largest-scale – the interactions between entire societies. They propose a shift in the object of study from individual societies as individual entities to a study of a world-system in which these societies act as parts of the whole. After considering definitions of 'world-system', the authors look at economic models, particularly as tied to the 'primitivist' and 'modernist' schools of thought. They posit three levels of interaction: regional interaction net, political/military interaction net, and prestige goods exchange (859-860). A typology of world-systems is proposed (868), and three hypotheses are listed dealing with core/periphery, inequality and reproduction/transformation of social structures. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Cherry, John F.
2011 "Still not Digging, Much"
in Archaeological Dialogues 18.1, pp. 10-17.
2.1
2.8.1
Th: excavation
     Cherry argues that excavation is not by any means the only method of archaeology, but one among a set, and often others are more appropriate or useful, depending on a variety of factors. For example, surveys are more useful for understanding wider, regeional patterns. "Excavation, in short, is a technique that does many things well, but it cannot do everything" (p. 15).
     The issue of the many as yet unpublished sites is also shortly discussed, and Cherry points out that an unpublished site can be seen as not very different from one that has been looted, since both are destroyed without any record or gain in knowledge. – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
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Childe, Gordon V.
1939 "The Orient and Europe"
in American Journal of Archaeology 43.1, pp. 10-26.
     Childe discusses Montelius' five axioms, defending them against criticism, particularly axiom 4, which posits developmental changes in Europe as arriving through diffusion from the Near East. The five axioms are dealt with within a wide set of comparisons ranging from the Near East over Anatolia to Europe. Childe's conclusion is that the archaeological findings to date do not invalidate the five axioms, and in conclusion he lists six zones, and posits what changes could be expected hypothetically. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
1946 "Archaeology and Anthropology"
in Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 2.3, pp. 243-251.
2.1
2.5.2
2.8.1
4.1
15.6
16.5
     Two particular aspects are brought to the fore of discussion: Anthropology and Marxism. Both are defended as particular contributors to archaeology. Childe sees anthropology as the closest counterpart to archaeology, claiming, "my thesis is that archaeology and anthropology (or, if you will ethnography) are two complementary departments of the sciences of man related in the same way, and as mutually indispensable, as paleontology and zoology in the science of life. Both are classificatory sciences and qua sciences, both deal with abstraction." (p. 243)
     He argues against the European diffusionists (Elliot Smith, Hocart, Perry, De Mortillet) who interpreted the cultural context through a hermetic bubble which only operated by two main concepts: progress and regress. According to Childe, this synthesis assigns humans a passive role, incapable of being civilized, and attributes every attempt at social progress or development to diffusive processes. Radliffe Brown responded to this approach more clearly, "The concentration of attention in what is called the diffusion of culture traits tends to produce a conception of culture as a collection of disparate entities (the so-called traits) brought together by pure historical accident and having only accidental relation to one another" (quoted by Childe, p. 246).
     Childe contends that in the endeavor of the reconstruction of the past, archeology must impose on the tenets of anthropology on material culture (functionalism and evolutionism). Further, the archaeological record on its own has the great potential to reveal crucial queries with Marxist salience like the 'motive forces of culture', 'technology' or 'modes of production'. As a pioneer and believer of the culture-historical approach, Childe closes his argument by requesting reconciliation and internal cohesion among diffusionsim, functionalism and evolutionism. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
1950 "The Urban Revolution"
in Town Planning Review 21.1.
11.1.1
     In this influential article, Childe lays out the characteristics of civilisation and the oldest cities. Human life and society is seen as a three-stage progression, starting with savagery, going to barbarism and finally to civilisation. They must occur in this order, and none can be skipped. Savagery and barbarism are defined purely in terms of the way food is procured (and thus appear not to be meant as value-judgements). Savages live only on wild food, while barbarians also cultivate plants and possibly breed animals. But fulltime craft specialisation is not possible in these societies, and is instead one of the markers of civilisation. In total, Childe sets up 10 criteria for civilisation. Besides craft specialisation, these include size, presence of some kind of tax, monumental public buildings, class differentiation, recording systems (i.e. writing), elaboration or arts and sciences, and importation of foreign goods.
     The three-stage progressive view offered here of human life and society is a typical one. Although not explicitly judging earlier stages, it is clear that the civilisation stage is considered the highest and most desireable, associated with many positive loaded words such as innovation, security, peace, sophisticated and scientific progress. – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
1957 Man Makes Himself
A Mentor Book. The New American Library.
     A generic, conclusive, brief, and integrated account of human experience! It is definitely an emblematic piece, representing a salient version of the cultural-historical approach that developed in the Anglo-Saxon tradition. Not exclusively directed at archaeologists, its generic style can easily be appreciated by a wider audience.
     Childe follows a chronological and topical order dealing narratively with the most memorable achievements of humankind. The nine chapters of the book tackle the most notable inventions and to what extent they impacted the evolution of man (as Childe calls it). The first chapters list several improvements, including the physical transformation of man, environmental conditions, the invention of fire and its effects on human socializing, the making of tools and the improvements of living, and the elaboration of human consciousness, mainly represented by the development of artistic behavior and the careful disposal and memory of the dead/ancestors.
     Chapters 5, 6, and 7 deal with two crucial moments: the Neolithic and the Urban Revolution. Childe mentions distinctive social, economic and political changes that transformed society and as a consequence life of man. Some of the changes include the invention of agriculture (cultivation of land), pastoralism and sedentary life, social clusters (namely villages), and the transition towards urban revolution, with a completely different set of settlement planning in urban areas and characterized by social hierarchies, specialized economy, writing system, monumental buildings and so on. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
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Chomsky, Noam
1957 Syntactic Structures
The Hague: Mouton and Co.
1980 Rules and Representations
New York: Columbia University Press (20052)
14.6.3
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Cicovacki, Predrag
2001 Kant's Legacy: Essays in Honor of Lewis White Beck
Woodbridge: University of Rochester Press.
14.10.1
     Papers on the continued importance of Kant's Critiques. The papers are limited to his legacy within philosophy, but on topics of great relevance to archaeology as well, including subjectivity and objectivity, the objective validity of empirical judgements, and the relation between causality and freedom. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Clarke, David
1968 Analytical Archaeology
London: Methuen & Co. Second edition 1978.
16.6.2
1973 "Archaeology: The Loss of Innocence"
in Antiquity XLVII, pp. 6-18.
2.1
15.3
16.6.2
     The paper represents an emblematic work, which gradually gained notable influence in the theoretical and methodological thought of the discipline. With a dual purpose, Clarke criticizes the historical focus of old archaeology and elaborates cogently on the exigent need for scientific and new archaeological approach able to test results and operate with a fully equipped epistemological, theoretical, methodological and interpretative framework. He puts great emphasis on the application of updated methodological tools which beyond the simple descriptive and comparative strategies shift the attention towards a highly interdisciplinary approach that benefits exceptionally from the applications of natural sciences like chemistry, geology, mathematics, statistics and so on.
     The loss of innocence signifies a shift of focus from consciousness through self-consciousness to critical-self-consciousness. Clarke calls for a cohesive conceptual construction of an archaeological metaphysics which evaluates the most general categories as based especially on time and space and broken down into five theoretical and methodological operations: 1) Pre-depositional and depositional theory - dealing with the nature of relationships between specific hominid activities, social patterns and environmental factors and statistical theory; 2) Post-depositional theory - with the nature of relationshipa between samples and traces, including movement, disturbance, erosion transformation, micro-geomorphological and statistical theory; 3) retrieval theory - theory of sampling the surviving record; 4) Analytical theory - including the nature of the relationship between observations, testing analysis, selective modeling, storage and so on and 5) Interpretative theory - including the nature of the relationship between archaeological patterns established by analysis and verified by experiments and predictions about unobservable behaviors.
     Salient criticism is directed at classification models of artifact taxonomy as limited only to strategies that ignore contextual information and spatial distribution of the archaeological data.
     Clarke calls attention to the role of the text and the extent to which it can be intermingled with the archaeological record, always taking into serious consideration their biased status. – [Esmeralda Agolli, March 2014]
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Collar, Anna; Fiona Coward; Tom Brughmans; Barbara J Mills
2015 "Networks in Archaeology: Phenomena, Abstraction, Representation"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 22.1, pp. 1-32.
13.5.3
     This paper serves as an introduction both to the use of network approaches in archaeology, and to a number of articles in this same volume of Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory dealing with network theory from different backgrounds. At the end of the paper there is also a very useful glossary of terms specific to network applications.
     Although network methods are not entirely new to archaeology, it is only in the last few decades they have really been taken up. Network methods often consist of (but need not be limited to) graphic visualisations of certain phenomena. Network studies are concerned with relationships, with entities represented by nodes (or dots) and the relation between them as lines (or 'edges'). In archaeology, these can be any number of imaginable things, including trade networks, social relations, ceramic distribution etc. "The central potential of network science for archaeology is that it places relationships at the heart of our analytical technique" (p. 6). – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
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Conklin, Harold C.
1972 Folk Classification. A Topically Arranged Bibliography of Contemporary and Background References through 1971
New Haven: Department of Anthropology, Yale University.
     Some 5000 titles are assembled here, dealing even tagentially with folk classification per se. After the section on sensation, section 3 on archaeology is the shortest, with about 200 titles, the earliest dating to the 1930s (except for one dating to 1918). The titles are divided into the following categories:
     
0. Principles of classification
Culturally dominated content1. Kinship and related topics
2. Archaeological classification
3. Anthropological classification
Biologically dominated content4. Ethnobotany
5. Ethnozoology
6. Ethnomedicine
Physically dominated content7. Orientation
8. Color
9. Sensation
– [Giorgio Buccellati, March 2015]
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Contini, Gianfranco
1970 "Esercizio d'interpretazione sopra un sonetto di Dante"
in G. Contini, Varianti e altra linguistica.
Torino: Einaudi 1970, pp. 161-168.
Th: broken traditions
     [And yet. The profound impact that the sonnet still has in any case on a modern Italian is not based on a total misreading of the original. The dynamics of tradition carries in subtle ways the response a modern reader gives to the sonnet, through echoes that are very much alive even if buried in subterranean recesses of the tradition. Thus the word "gentile" is felt as being akin to the formulation one uses in a letter, where the address formula "Gentile Signor..." does not imply kindness, but nobility. Similarly, the verb "pare" is detached from the current meaning "to seem like," and the reader will have in his sensitivity the acceptation found in other texts by Dante himself or his contemporaries, as in Dante's verse from the Comedy "qui si parrà la tua nobilitate" (Inf. 2:9). In other words, the modern reader operates on multiple levels of culture, which reflect precisely the tradition. We may say that competence is a multi-layered dimension of sensitivity, nourished not only by daily usage, but also by different contexts of meaning.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, March 2015]
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Cooney, Gabriel
2009 "European and Global Archaeologies"
in World Archaeology 41.4, pp. 626-628.
1.1.6
     The introductory paper to a World Archaeology volume dedicated to the concept of 'European' archaeology. Attempts have been made to create more communication and integration between archaeologists and archaeological discourse in different European countries, for example through EAA (the European Association of Archaeologists) and their regular meetings. Major differences still abound, "influenced by national definitions of the role of the state, research traditions, legislation and custom with respect to private property and political views" (p. 626). These ideas are explored in the various papers in the volume.
     See also Harding 2009 – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Corley, Hugh
2013 "Can you Hack (the) Communication?"
in Earl et al. 2013, pp. 49-54.
2.7.1
13.1
Th: excavation
     Corley relates his experience of implementing the archaeological information management system Intrasis in English Heritage. He points out that adapting to change in fact turned out to be more costly than the technology itself (purchase of the necessary hardware and software). It required new procedures and compatibility.
     Although the new system is digital, fully digital field recording is still unusual - and generally very impractical. Instead, a 'hybrid' system is in place, where 'paper' data from the trench is immediately (same day) added to the digital record along with other 'born digital' data (e.g. images from cameras, GPS data). The whole process is time-consuming and subject to resistance especially by users who may feel they lack the necessary skills, but the final result entails faster output, higher quality of data and higher compatibility across data sets - "Direct digital capture of excavations is not a simple task. It is costly, tiring, aggravating and fraught with difficulty. So why do we want to do it? Why don't we just stick with things the way they are? Because properly structured digital datsets containing high quality data may save us all. In these times of shrinking budgets and re-aligned priorities we must all prove our value. Digital datasets that can be semantically mapped will enhance cross searching sites alongside grey literature reports (Andrew 2000; Tudhope 2011). The great potential of searching across datasets could increase the pressure for data standards (Richards 2008) and, in turn, continue to increase the quality of excavation data. We must not only demonstrate that we can capture digital data, but that the digital data we capture is of the quality that we as a discipline should expect" (p. 53). – [Laerke Recht, January 2015]
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Costa, Stefano; Anthony Beck; Andrew Bevan; Jessica Ogden
2013 "Defining and Advocating Open Data in Archaeology"
in Earl et al. 2013, pp. 449-456.
2.7.1
13.1
     The authors explore the potential of Open Data in archaeology. Being digital is a prerequisite for open data; 'data' is often placed in opposition to interpretation, but is here understood as archaeological data from all the processes involved. Open data means increased public availability and allows 'text-mining', increasing searchability. Added to this is the option of Linked Open Data, which would significantly add to inter-site relations and compatibility. – [Laerke Recht, January 2015]
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Costello, Julia
2000 "Red Light Voices: An Archaeological Drama of Late Nineteenth-Century Prostitution"
in Schmidt and Voss 2000, pp. 160-175.
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Courbin, Paul
1988 What is Archaeology? An Essay on the Nature of Archaeological Research
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
2.1
     Courbin critiques New Archaeology and then outlines why archaeololgy is a distinct discipline, especially on account of its ability to establish facts. Buccellati also argues that archaeology is a discipline that has its own unique traits that make it different than other disciplines. – [Heidi Dodgen, February 2013]
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Cowgill, L.C.
1982 "Cluster of Objects and Association of Variables: Two Approaches to Archaeological Classification"
in Whallon & Brown 1982, pp. 30-55.
3.1
3.5.2
     Cowgill focusses on the cluster-object and variable association approaches respectively associated with Hodson and Spaulding. He basically attempts to marry both approaches by applying them to a particular set of data without participating in the controversial debate. According to Cowgill, the cluster-object approach as suggested by Hodson offers an effective tool for classifying nominal variables, usually made of two salient and easily distinguished attributes like shell, temper, jar, bowl and so on.
     He particularly emphasizes Hodson's definition of groups as "similar objects that exhibit internal cohesion and external isolation". He recognizes that this definition cannot apply easily and clearly to any type of archaeological data. Moreover, if we are to measure the association of variables from various groups within a particular assemblage, we would likely face a situation where particular variables of a given group show a tendency to stay either between two groups or closer to another group. Cowgill clearly supports the first half of Hodson's definition and claims that the internal cohesion is essential for a group and its constituent attributes. However, he implies that various ways of measurements based on the three kinds of variable (nominal, interval and ordinal) may produce effective tools for the definition of groups and the association of variables. He does recognize that the group-clustering may work very well on the classification of two attributes; in a context with multivariate attributes such an approach may create controversies. – [Esmeralda Agolli, April 2014]
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Cremo, Michael A.
1999 "Puranic Time and the Archaeological Record"
in Murray 1999a, pp. 38-48.
3.3
     Cremo argues that the predominant view of time in archaeology follows a Judeo-Christian cosmological-historical concept of time which is linear and progressive. The 'bewildering' archaeological record is explained in these evolutionary terms. Having carefully examined the ways in which the Judeo-Christian framework underlies our thinking from the universe being understood as created in a single, unique event to humans being the last, ultimate and most superior creature in the ladder of evolution, Cremo offers an alternative from Indian Hinduism. That is not necessarily to say that one model is more 'true' than the other, but rather to search for the best way to explain the material remains as we find them, "I propose that total hostility to religious views of nature in science is unreasonable, especially for the modern historical sciences. Despite their pretensions to areligious objectivity, practitioners unconsciously retain or incorporate into their workings many Judeo-Christian cosmological concepts, especially concerning time, and implicitly employ them in their day-to-day work of observation and theory-building." (p. 41).
     The alternative suggested is the Puranic time concept from India. Time is here deep and cyclical. It consists of various cycles, the total of each contains billions of years (with the inhabited earth set at an age of about 2 billion years); each cycle is understood as "a progression from a golden age of peace and spiritual progress to a final age of violence and spiritual degradation" (p. 42). If taken seriously, this view of time would predict and interpret cultural remains in a very different manner than that of Judeo-Christian views. The archaeological record might in each case be 'edited' to fit the predominant view of time - Cremo lists specific examples how he believes this has happened with much prehistoric material to fit the Judeo-Christian linear progressive perception.
     What Cremo suggests as an alternative to the common archaeological view of time appears provocative: "That is exactly what I would propose - that in the course of cyclic time, humans with a culture resembling that of modern North American Indians did in fact appear in California millions of years ago, perhaps several times" (p. 46). However, he highlights an important underlying unresolved issue, and "until modern anthropology conducts a conscious examination of the effects of its own covert, and arguably religiously derived, assumptions about time and progress, it should put aside its pretensions to universal objectivity and not be so quick to accuse others of bending facts to fit religious dogma" (p. 46). – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
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Cull, Barry W.
2011 "Reading Revolutions: Online Digital Text and Implications for Reading in Academe"
in First Monday 16.6.
Available online: Online article [Accessed 26 July 2016]
12.2.5
     This article is a response to Carr 2008 and others expressing similar thoughts. Taking a less dismal view of developments than Carr, Cull introduces academia and students into the equation. He also offers a historical background in order to provide some perspective. He reminds us that the success of the internet is one that could only have taken place in a highly literate society, which is quite new in human history. What is more, reading is associated with higher status and elite members of society.
     However, Cull also recognises that reading from a screen involves a process different from the printed page, "The way the brain is adapting to meet the new medium of electronic text is only beginning to become understood. Despite the fact that skimming and jumping around from place to place within text is not limited to online reading, this type of reading appears to be the most common type of reading online. Popular writers, such as Nicholas Carr (2010), continue to express concern over its potential neurological affects. [...] While there is not yet enough published scientific research to make many definite conclusions about the effect of online reading on learning and the brain, it is known that the process of reading on screen tends to be cognitively different from the process of reading on paper, in terms of brain activation, the contextual environment, cognitive focus, comprehension, and reading speed." – [Laerke Recht, November 2016]
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Dallas, Costis
2015 "Jean-Claude Gardin on Archaeological Data, Representation and Knowledge: Implications for Digital Archaeology"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 23.1, pp. 305-330.
15.4
15.13
     This paper aims at showing how the work of Gardin can be useful for the challenges of new digital methods and tools in archaeology. It looks at two different aspects of his work, which are complimentary and reflect archaeological practice. One aspect is focussed on data, observation and 'documentary applications' ("archaeological documentation"). This is especially relevant for digital presentation and preservation of data, and the potential to create larger, more compatible databases. The second is what might be called either explanation or interpretation, and how archaeologists themselves reach the conclusions that they do ("archaeological reason"). – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Darch, Peter T.; Asley E Sands
1995 "Beyond Big or Little Science: Understanding Data Life Cycles in Astronomy and the Deep Subseafloor Biosphere"
in iConference 2015 Proceedings, pp. 1-16.
Available online: auth.ucla.edu/index.php
     For decades, the big science and little science dichotomy has served as a starting point for many analyses of scientific research and data practices, including studies used to inform the construction of scientific knowledge infrastructures. We challenge this dichotomy by presenting findings from longitudinal, qualitative case studies of data life cycles in two scientific domains, each centered around a large, distributed scientific collaboration. One is astronomy and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The other is the deep subseafloor biosphere and the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI). We show that some critical stages of the data life cycle in each domain unfold in big science contexts while other critical stages occur in little science contexts. Furthermore, these big and little science contexts shape each other dynamically. This challenging of the big and little science dichotomy has implications for the building of scientific knowledge infrastructures, including those supporting data management – [Publisher's abstract]
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Dark, K.R.
1995 Theoretical Archaeology
Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
2.8.1
     Archaeology uses material data to study the past, but material remains are unable to speak for themselves. They need to be interpreted. All archaeology depends upon the logical framework used to understand data: the theory which underlies interpretation. Yet archaeological theory often seems inaccessible or even irrelevant, wrapped up in jargon and filled with obscure allusions. Written especially for those with no previous knowledge of theory, this book aims to introduce the subject in a way which is both readable and which shows its relevance, and without a specific theoretical stance. The range of theoretical views on some of the - Themes and problems most often encountered in archaeology is outlined, introducing a wide variety of concepts and approaches equally relevant to the professional or amateur archaeologist, student, or non-specialist reader of archaeological work. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Darwin, Charles
1861 On the Origin of Species
London: John Murray (third edition)
Available online: darwin-online.org.uk
12.4.1
1958 The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882
With original omissions restored, edited with Appendix and Notes by his grand-daughter Nora Barlow.
London: Collins.
Available online: darwin-online.org.uk
12.4.1
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Davey, Nicholas
2006 Unquiet Understanding: Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics
Albany, NY State University of New York Press.
1.1.4
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Davies, Tony
1997 Humanism
London and New York: Routledge.
2.5.3
     Seemingly an appeal to a simple, shared humanity, humanism has proved over the last two hundred years one of the most contentious and divisive of concepts. It has provoked a succession of often bitter altercations and engages with some of the profoundest - Themes - philosophical, sexual, political - of modern life and thought.
     Starting with the nineteenth-century educationalists and historians who coined and first defined the word, Tony Davies' study traces the emergence of the figure of 'Man' in the writings of the humanists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the freethinkers and philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He also explores the issues at stake in the later encounters between humanism and a succession of intransigent antihumanisms.
     Humanism is an essential guide to one of the key concepts in cultural and literary thought. - – [Publisher's blurb]
     This book on the concept of humanism, including its historical developments, starts with an important discussion on the problems of its definition. Humanism has a broad range of meanings, with some associations to language, grammar and philology. It is and has been understood in both a negative and a positive light, "On one side, humanism is saluted as the philosophical champion of human freedom and dignity, standing alone and often outnumbered against the battalions of ignorance, tyranny and superstition. ... On the other, it has been denounced as an ideological smokescreen for the oppressive mystifications of modern society and culture, the marginalisation and oppression of the multitudes of human beings in whose name it pretends to speak, even, through an inexorable 'dialectic of enlightenment', for the nightmare of fascism and the atrocity of total war." (p. 5). – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Davis, Whitney
2000 "The Site of Sexuality: William Beckford's Fonthill Abbey, 1780-1824"
in Schmidt and Voss 2000, pp. 104-113.
16.3.4
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De Beaune, Sophie A.
2013 Chasseurs-cueilleurs: Comment vivaient nos ancêtres du Paléolithique supérieur
Paris, CNRS éditions (2d ed. coll. Biblis; 1st edition: 2007).
     This is an edited volume resulting from the colloquium that I organized, titled "Reconstructing Daily Life in the Upper Paleolithic" (held at the University of Lyon 3, in 2005). After being published in 2007, it was re-edited in 2013 as a paperback. The theme of the volume was to question the epistemological validity of our behavioral reconstructions on the basis of archaeological remains. This issue of the interpretive trajectory from material remains to the humans that made them ultimately poses the problem of what it is that prehistorians want to rediscover and reconstruct. Confrontations between numerous representatives from varied fields (tourism professionals, historians of our discipline, zooarchaeologists, technologists, rock art specialists, etc.), but all of whom are working for a better understanding of prehistoric life styles, shows that if we succeed in recovering specific elements from daily life, the social and symbolic dimensions most often remain beyond reach. – [Publisher's abstract]
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de Raemy, Daniel; Olivier Feihl; Laurent Golay; Anna Pedrucci; Jean-Pierre Dresco; Jean Nicollier
1999 Chillon, La Chapelle
Lausanne: Association du Chatesu de Chillon
9.3
     On pp. 21-23 there is a brief report on a successful system of projection of images over poorly preserved frescoes, carried out in 1995. – []
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De Saussure, Ferdinand
1922 Cours de linguistique générale
Paris: Payot. Publié par Charles Bailly et Albert Séchehaye avec la collaboration de Albert Riedlinger.
Slightly revised second edition; first edition published in 1916.
The original pagination of this edition is given in all subsequent editions, and it is the standard one used for citations.
14.8.4
1967 Cours de linguistique générale
Paris: Payot. Publié par Charles Bailly et Albert Séchehaye avec la collaboration de Albert Riedlinger.
édition critique préparée par Tullio de Mauro.
Postface de Louis-Jean Calvet.
14.8.2
14.8.4
14.10.1
15.4
     A fundamental text that brings to full fruition the concept of structure (see 14.10). Here are some of the highlights that are particularly pertinent for my argument.
     However brief, the review of earlier linguistic research is important because of the way in which it highlights the new approach De Saussure proposes. Inter alia, it stresses the importance of defining more precisely the field of study as such (pp. 16 and 31).
     A consideration that is of particular significance for archaeology is that, in contrast with other sciences, the object of study in linguistics is not a given, because it is instead created by the point of view taken by the observer (p. 23).
     It is indispensable to keep the levels of analysis distinct (see also Wölfflin), something which emerges as all the more significantly in relationship to non-linguistic factors (e.g., writing) and to other disciplines (see especially chapter VI of the Introduction). Notoriously, de Saussure hardly ever uses the term "structure," but the concept is at the very core of his thinking. Thus on p. 43, he argues against a cumulative (Kant would say "rhapsodic") piling up of one detail on top of the other, where there may well be organization for the sake of clarity and some kind of extrinsic arrangement of the data (external linguistics). Instead, internal (i. e., structural) linguistics is a system that does not recognize any organizational (structural) principle except its own. – [Giorgio Buccellati, October 2013]
1986 Course in General Linguistics
La Salle, Illinois: Open Court.
Edited Charles Bailly and Albert Sechehaye with the collaboration of Albert Riedlinger.
Translated and annotated by Roy Harris.
     An important translation, particularly attentive to terminology, which is rendered in ways that reflect the intended sense rather than the original lexical term (thus, "langue" is translated, among other renderings, as "linsguistic structure" or "linguistic system." See also Harris 1987. – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
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Derricourt, Robin
2012 "Pseudoarchaeology: The Concept and Its Limitations"
in Antiquity 86.332, pp. 524-532.
8.12
     As described in the title, this paper discusses the concept of pseudoarchaeology and its current status in relation to archaeology. The stories told in pseudoarchaeology is variously described as 'alternative narratives', 'the tease', 'imagined pasts' or 'invented histories'.
     Derricourt points out that many of the 'wilder' theories originally come from recognised and respected archaeologists, and that the boundary between 'them and us' become blurred. Postmodern influences in archaeology have also tended to promote multivocality and acceptance of a broader range of narratives. However, these 'alternative' narratives can include those of strong political or ethnical agendas, and as the commentators add at the end, this is one place where such narratives can become dangerous and where archaeologists might be said to have an ethical duty to challenge them. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Derrida, Jacques
1967 De la grammatologie
Paris: Les éditions de Minuit (second edition).
15.10.2
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Dever, William G.
1981 "The Impact of the 'New Archaeology' on Syro-Palestinian Archaeology"
in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 242, pp. 15-29.
     A penetrating overview that treats the significant development of the archaeological thought established in the Syro-Palestinian environment. During the 1970s, "New Archaeology" radiated its influence to this part of the world, creating an interesting marriage between the traditional and the American anthropological approach. Dever notes several developments occurring during this period, including the multidisciplinary orientation, consideration of environmental factors, recognition of the value of ethnographic parallels, employment of general system theory, scientific method with its hypothesis testing, adaptation of behavioral processualist and so on. However, this plethora of queries only remained constrained in a static framework that never addressed the evolutionary agenda. This transformation was more clearly noticed in areas of study that did not involve theoretical evaluations, such as environmental studies, ceramic typology, stratigraphy or even addressing queries with an analytical emphasis. This interaction, however, remained inefficient when issues of religious, ethnic, long term changes and philosophy came into play. – [Esmeralda Agolli, August 2014]
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Díaz-Andreu, Margarita
2008 A World History of Nineteenth-Century Archaeology: Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Past
New York: Oxford University Press.
2.1
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     This 'alternative' history of archaeology places the discipline and its practitioners in their historical, political and ideological context. This is extremely useful for understanding the development of archaeology and its practice in different countries. Archaeology is seen in the broadest sense possible, with the inclusion of prehistorians, art historians, antiquarians and geologists. Nationalism, colonialism and empiricism are demonstrated to be strong factors in archaeological thought, providing more or less explicit agendas. Archaeology thus does not exist in a value-free vacuum separate from the rest of the world and historical events. Its history also underlines the fact that excavation was not always central. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Diehl, Richard A.
1983 Tula: The Toltec Capital of Ancient Mexico
Thames & Hudson.
Th: excavation
     Account of the Toltec city of Tula in Mexico, and general background on Toltec culture. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Dilthey, Wilhelm
1883 Einleitung in die Geisteswissenschaften
Leipzig: Teubner.
Reprinted without changes as Vol. I of Gesammelte Schriften, also with Teubner.
14.10.2
14.11
14.12
     In the dedication (p. IX), the author refers to an earlier time when he "still dared to describe this book as a Critique of Historical Reason." The effort to construct the "Geisteswissenshaft" as an autonomous science (e.g., p. XVIII) speaks to the same concern I have voiced for archaeology. – [Giorgio Buccellati, October 2013]
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Dingley, S.
2006 "A Plea for Responsibility towards the Common Heritage of Mankind"
in C. Scarre & G. Scarre (eds.), The Ethics of Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, pp. 219-241.
     Dingli looks at the difference between Locke's and Grotius' approaches to 'unclaimed' property; while Locke states that unclaimed property can be taken by an individual, Grotius claims that such property can be used by an individual but remains in the public domain. She considers three conventions in this light: Malta 1992, UNESCO 1973, and European Landscape 2000. She ends with a consideration of stewardship. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Dobres, Marcia-Anne; John E. Robb
2005 "'Doing' Agency: Introductory Remarks on Methodology"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 12.3, pp. 159-166.
16.4.1
     Acting as an introduction to two issues of the Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, this article situates the concept of agency in archaeology. Agency can be both a theory and a method, and care should be taken not to make the concept so broad as to become analytically meaningless. The authors advocate 'middle-range' approaches which can link the specifics with general theories. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Ducke, Benjamin
2012 "Natives of a Connected World: Free and Open Source Software in Archaeology"
in World Archaeology 44.4, pp. 571-579.
13.5.12
     Paper focussing on the technological aspect of 'open archaeology', particularly looking at free and open source software (FOSS). Echoing the sentiment in Beck & Neylon, Ducke also argues for the publication of 'raw' data along with methodology and source codes used in the software in order for others to adequately assess the conclusions.
     This paper is part of a World Archaeology volume dedicated to digital archaeology. See Lake 2012. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Dunnell, Robert
1971 Systematics in Prehistory
New York: The Free Press.
3.1
     If anything, this book represents one of the few comprehensive attempts in classification. Dunnell succeeds in elaborating in the finest details the conceptual framework of a classification system. Without doubt, this work is a synthesis of the concepts of classification, from the most basic to highly complicated matters regarding the relationship between classes, the most effective classification for a given situation or set of data, and to what extent one can derive interpretations.
     Along with a few other archaeologist of the 1970s, Dunnell aims for the construction of a scientific framework in archaeological research. On the one hand by calling into question the antiquated methods of the Old Archaeology and on the other by offering a highly innovative focus on scientific research capable of testable results and cogent explanations.
     Even beyond the limits of the archaeological discipline itself, Dunnell constructs an order of concepts integrally organized within the so-called systematics defined as "a set of propositions, concepts and operations used to create units for any scientific discipline" and attempts to give to research in prehistory a formal sense. Indeed, classification comes to the center of attention, treated as a crucial aspect which assists both the thinking and any operation undertaken with the archaeological data. According to Dunnell, classification, if undertaken cogently, may become a potential and somehow exclusive tool in the understanding a given context. From the formation of the query to the derivation of interpretations, archaeological research is conceptually organized in a dual framwork: Ideational - things that have no objective existence (ideas) and Phenomenological - things and events easily observed. Given this, our thinking and actions in archaeological research are likely to deal constantly with the two; our ideas, assumptions, understanding and background concerning a given matter and our approach in the search and analysis of the phenomena and the objective context of things. Both ideational and phenomenological research avenues are conceptually placed into a well-integrated operational scheme comprised of theory, method, technique and hypothesis.
     In the given context, classification as a process widely applied to any type of data; matter or subject is considered as a key element with the potential to arrange ideas, things, artifacts, buildings and so on. However, Dunnell notes some important limitations of classification as a practical and conceptual tool: 1) Classification is arbitrary, intuitive, and cannot include the totality of a given set of data; 2) Classification is a matter of quality as simple as "you cannot count something until you have something to count", necessarily or unnecessarily creates definable quantities, it is useless without groups and meaningless without classes; 3) Classification states relations only within and between units in the same system; 4) Classification units have primacy over labels and 5) Classification units have primacy over structuring models.
     Archaeologists and prehistorians should pay serious attention to the evaluation criteria upon which a classification system is valid. Dunnell synthesizes four aspects: the selection of field; selection of a particular scale at which classes are formed; discriminatory features for the creation of classes and selection from among those discriminated features that are considered definitive.
     Two kinds of classification are defined: 1) Paradigmantic classification - where every class is drawn from the same dimensions (dimension being a set of mutually exclusive alternative features). This kind is likely to derive objective results once the field and the level of organization are well defined and 2) Taxonomic classification - organized by a hierarchical structure, not based at all on dimensional and distinctive features, produces potential for ambiguity, depends highly on significance, and must firstly rely on paradigmatic classification.
     The descriptive and explanatory background on classification is then followed by a whole set of statistical operations which somehow have the potential to indicate the significance of the classes, any potential relationship, distribution and so on.
     The focus on prehistoric data and especially artifacts is not very different from that of Rouse. – [Esmeralda Agolli, March 2014]
1978 "Style and Function - A Fundamental Dichotomy"
in American Antiquity 43.2, pp. 192-202.
     Dunnell begins with a brief outline of three prevalent archaeological paradigms: Culture History, Cultural Reconstructionism and Processual Archaeology. His approach expands on some concepts in Processual Archaeology, focusing on Archaeological Units, Evolutionary Archaeology, and Style and Function in an Evolutionary Context. It is this evolutionary model that Dunnell wants to expand within the framework of Processual Archaeology, analyzing functional traits with some of the same approaches as those used in genetic studies, while stylistic traits can be studied through stochastic processes. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
1982 "Science, Social Science and Common Sense: The Agonizing Dilemma of Modern Archaeology"
in Journal of Anthropological Research, pp. 1-25.
15.13
     This is indeed an interesting paper. It mostly concerns the theoretical dynamics and scientific research of archaeology, attempting to reveal the purest and original emphasis of the field. Dunnell focuses on the philosophy of science and especially criticizes the lack of precision and completeness within archaeological theory. He calls for a nomothetic character of the discipline and its great potential to dig through the simple and shallow borrowing of other fields, which he claims have not contributed to "the building of a cohesive and scientific theory". The epistemological character is equally posed concerning the inductive and deductive premises. Theory in itself is placed between the phenomenological and ideational distinction. Moreover, aspects like explanation and prediction must receive a greater deal of attention in any formulation. Dunnell perceives theory as a tool of investigation for the understanding of the phenomena in a universe that is not homogeneous and where the rate of change over time plays a fundamental role. Particular criticism is directed at the traditional approach, understood within the boundaries of common sense which never managed give to the field a scientific focus. Archaeology in itself is viewed as a social and scientific field where the inductive and deductive premises are strictly integrated and theory becomes an inseparable nexus of the empirical treatment of the data. – [Esmeralda Agolli, May 2014]
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Dunnell, Robert C.; Edwin S. Hall
1978 Archaeological Essays in Honor of Irving B. Rouse
The Hagie: Mouton.
     See Chang 1978 "Historical Relity". – []
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Dyson, S.L.
1993 "From New to New Age Archaeology: Archaeological Theory and Classical Archaeology – A 1990s Perspective"
in American Journal of Archaeology 97, pp. 195-206.
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Earl, G.; T. Sly; A. Chrysanthi; P. Murrieta-Flores; C. Papadopoulos; I. Romanowska; D. Wheatley (eds.)
2013 Archaeology in the Digital Era: Papers from the 40th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Southampton, 26-29 March 2012
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
2.7.1
7.5.2
11.6
13.1
     This is a collection of papers on digital archaeology and a variety of computer applications in archaeological practice, from the 2012 CAA proceedings (Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology). The papers discuss the theoretical background of digital/computational archaeology, methodology, and present many examples and case studies. These include simulation and virtual reconstruction, digital recording and implementation in the field, predictive modelling, and attempts at and problems of creating broader digital systems that synchronise and standardise data in order to facilitate inter-site queries/comparisons.
     For more comments on individual papers, see Huggett 2013, Corley 2013, Carver and Lang 2013, and Costa et al. 2013 – [Laerke Recht, January 2015]
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Earle, Timothy
2008 "Cultural Anthropology and Archaeology: Theoretical Dialogues"
in Bentley et al. 2008, pp. 187-202.
2.1
     Essentially seeing archaeologists as 'cultural anthropologists of the past', Earle reviews the history of the relationship between archaeology and cultural anthropology, including the divergent American and European traditions. The two disciplines are understood as sharing common concerns and as being part of the same endeavour. Earle advocates a dynamic (but not necessarily harmonious) relationship between the two, and in-depth training of archaeologists in cultural anthropology. – [Laerke Recht, July 2014]
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Edgeworth, Matt
2006 Ethnographies of Archaeological Practice: Cultural Encounters, Material Transformations
Edited by Matt Edgeworth. Lanham, New York, Toronto, Oxford: Altamira Press.
2.1
8.1
Th: excavation
     Edgeworth presents a collection of papers that in each their way apply ethnographic method to archaeological practice. This results in a variety of - Themes, from how excavation makes archaeologists through the social 'games' played and almost satirical accounts of archaeological reason to how experts (the archaeologists) interact with the public or local communities.
     Ethnography is thus neither equated with archaeology nor used as a tool to further interpretation of the archaeological remains, but instead aimed at how archaeology is acted out. The logic is that "If ethnography or ethnoarchaeology are appropriate methods through which to study material practices of the Dinka or the Inuit or the Mehinacu, it is equally appropriate to use such methods to study archaeological practices. If a general theory of material culture is relevant to the material culture of exotic societies on the other side of the world - if it is truly general - it should be relevant to the analysis of our material culture too (the trowel, the context sheet, the camera, the computer). If Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice is to be applied to an understanding of human action and material culture in the past, it should also be applied to our own present actions in constituting knowledge of that past." (p. xiii)
     For more comments, see individual entries of Yarrow 2006, van Reybrouck and Jacobs 2006, Roveland 2006, Carman 2006, Erdur 2006, and Karlsson and Gustafsson 2006. – [Laerke Recht, October 2014]
2011 "Excavation as a Ground of Archaeological Knowledge"
in Archaeological Dialogues 18.1, pp. 44-46.
2.1
2.3.1
2.8.1
Th: excavation
     Excavation is here seen as a core method, distinctive and at the very heart of the discipline, "necessary for an archaeologist to gain some experience and mastery of it in order to 'be' an archaeologist. Something of the essence of archaeology really is bound up with excavation, and not just in terms of its image in popular culture." (p. 44). – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
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Eggert, Manfred K.H.
2001 Prähistorische Archäologie: Konzepte und Methoden
Tübingen and Basel: A. Francke.
3.1
4.2
16.6.3
16.7
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Eldredge, Niles; S.J. Gould
1972 "Punctuated Equilibria: An Alternative to Phyletic Gradualism"
in T.J.M. Schopf (ed.), Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman Cooper. pp. 82-115.
Reprinted in N. Eldredge Time frames (1985). Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, pp. 193-223.
12.7
13.2.3
13.3.1
     In biology, the concept of "punctuated equilibrium" applies to periods of stasis in genetic evolution, periods when a balance is held among the elements that are operative at that moment. [This can be seen as an image of the tensionality that characterizes the archaeological record in both its physical dimension and its formalization, especially digital. I also use the term "punctuated continuum" to refer to the graduality of competences and interests in the target of a public outreach effort.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2015]
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Embree, Lester (ed.)
1992 Metaarchaeology. Reflections by Archaeologists and Philosophers
Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 147.
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Heidelberg: Springer Science.
15.14
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Erdur, Oguz
2006 "Realisafiction: A day of work at Everybody-Knows-Land"
in Edgeworth 2006, pp. 103-113.
8.1
Th: excavation
     Using an alternative style of narrative, Erdur provides an account of an ethnographers encounter with excavation practices. The essay is constructed as a provocative, almost satirical tale, which effectively highlights the arbitrary and constructed nature of excavation, and the devaluing of uncertainty that takes place. A small excerpt will serve as an example:
     "Finds go to the museum," he said, "you know, the handsome ones. The rest - nobody really knows what to do with them. We keep them here because, what else really, we have to keep them - and also this project has the money for storage like this. Some local excavations end up burying this kind of stuff back into the ground."
     "Check this out! Isn't it pretty!" shouts Red-tulip-of-many-a-pit pointing at the ground, as she stands up from the spot she's just crouched into a minute ago. (Everything blends into everything else here: basins, walls, the morning, ovens, my thoughts, yesterday, their words . . . )
     "What did you find?" asks Just-working-for-the-white-man-here, closing in toward her.
     "Not sure really . . . but I'm following it." – [Laerke Recht, October 2014]
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Evans, Thomas L.; Patrick Daly (eds.)
2006 Digital Archaeology: Bridging Method and Theory
London and New York: Routledge.
11.1.2
     Digital Archaeology is a unique edited work addressing the changing and growing role of digital technologies in all aspects of archaeology and heritage management. Exploring the wide potential of IT across the discipline, this book goes beyond the prevailing notion that computers are merely a methodological tool, and considers their influence on the very nature of archaeological study.
     Blending rigorous archaeological theory with the extensive practical knowledge of professionals in the field, Digital Archaeology is a highly accessible text that shows and discusses the ways in which computing can be holistically incorporated into archaeology. The book discusses elements of archaeological theory and reveals how computers can be used to reintegrate theoretical questions into the application of field work and analysis.
     Beginning with a history of the growth of computing within the field, the book goes on to look at examples of how and why different technologies have been implemented into archaeological theory and method. It includes GIS, virtual reality modelling, internet publishing and archiving, and on-site digital recording using such examples as the integrated digital recording of the Ferrybridge Chariot and other case studies from around the world. This volume also discusses ways in which technology can now be used in normal excavations and how this affects the study of archaeology as a whole, from planning to publication. - – [Publisher's blurb]
     In the introduction, the editors emphasise that digitality in archaeology should not be seen as a separate field, but as an approach to archaeology. One where technology and technological possibilites are an intergrated part of both practice and theory in archaeology. As such, it also transforms the way we do archaeology, what can be done, and the kinds of questions and answers that are possible. The transformation occurs even at the earliest stages of field recording and data management, while digital developments in virtual reality and dissemination changes the way archaeology can engage with the public. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Fagan, Garrett G. (ed.)
2006 Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public
Abingdon: Psychology Press.
8.12
     Did aliens build the pyramids? Do all the world's civilizations owe a debt of gratitude to a single super-civilization in ancient times? Was Egypt the home of magicians? Is there a fantastic body of ancient wisdom awaiting discovery, which will help solve the world's problems? These and other scenarios are thrown up by purveyors of what is often dubbed "alternative," "fringe," or "popular" archaeology and ancient history. In reality, such work is properly called pseudoarchaeology since it is a muddled imitation of the real thing.
     In this collection of stimulating and engaging essays, a diverse group of scholars, scientists, and writers consider the phenomenon of pseudoarchaeology from a variety of perspectives. They contemplate what differentiates it from real archaeology; its defining characteristics; the reasons for its popular appeal and how television documentaries contribute to its popularity; how nationalist agendas can warp genuine archaeology into a pseudo-version; and the links between pseudoarchaeology and other brands of false history and pseudoscience. Case studies include surveys of esoteric Egypt and the supposedly mystical Maya, Nazi pseudoarchaeology, and ancient pseudohistory in modern India. – [Publisher's blurb]
     In this passionately argued (and at times strongly worded) collection of essays, we are shown case studies of how pseudoarchaeology is practised and causes real damage. Different aspects are explored, moving beyond conspiracy fanatics and television producers to the (ab)use of archaeology in nationalistic, ideological and racist agendas.
     In the Foreword, Colin Renfrew defines pseudoarchaeology as, "the misrepresentation of the past misusing the material evidence of that past". (p. xii). Elaborating on this, Fagan attempts to delimit pseudoarchaeology by defining and contrasting it with archaeology. The main convergences are found in the absolute importance of context and willingness to adapt theories depending on (new) data in archaeology, while pseudoarchaeology disregards context and is characterised by inflexible theories. Pseudoarchaeology further involves a deliberate misleading and ignoring of some data ['deliberate' being the operative word here - this may be difficult to define and identify]. – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
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Figal, Günther
2006 Gegenständlichkeit. Das Hermeneutische und die Philosophie
Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Cited according to the German text published with an Italian translation by Antonio Cimino: Oggettualità. Esperienza ermeneutica e filosofia. Il pensiero occidentale, Milano: Bompiani, 2012 (2nd edition). The German text has here been revised by Figal, who has also written a brief Italian preface.
English translation by Theodore D. George, Objectivity. The hermeneutical and philosophy. Albany: State University of New York, 2010.
1.1.4
15.6
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Figal, Günther; Jean Grondin; Dennis J. Schmidt
2000 Hermeneutische Wege. Hans-Georg Gadamer zum Hundertsten
Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
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Flannery, K.; J. Marcus
1996 "Cognitive Archaeology"
in Preucel & Hodder (eds.), Contemporary Archaeology in Theory, pp. 350-363.
     Flannery and Marcus attempt to define, in medias res, what cognitive archaeology is, looking particularly at the aspects of cosmology, religion, ideology and iconography. They attempt to show how cognitive archaeology is not to be understood as the domain of "armchair archaeologists" but rather is a response to the tendency in subsistence-settlement archaeology to dehumanize the interpretation of the archaeological record. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Flannery, Kent V.
1982 "The Golden Marshalltown: A Parable for the Archeology of the 1980s"
in American Anthropologist 84.2, pp. 265-278.
4.1
16.5
     Four different archaeologists meet during unforeseen circumstance and begin a discussion on an easily imagined topic: archaeology. The characters are given provocative nick names: The Born-Again Philosopher (an overly tired field archaeologist who at a certain point shifts the focus to the philosophy of archaeology); The Child of the Seventies (a young tenure who lives with some pragmatic devices, and succeeds in borrowing original ideas of other scholars and then publishing them as his own); The Old Timer (the real character, a newly retired university professor who during his career took two aspects seriously: field archaeology and interpretations with cultural salience); and Flannery.
     The story is indeed a fiction. In Flannery's imagination, this clash of generations is involved in a fine and sophisticated discussion that addresses burning issues that archaeology was experiencing during the 1980s. The gamma of discussion ranges from archaeological ethics, to philosophical, theoretical and practical subjects. Flannery sees the focus of the new generation as led by a blind ambition for quick success and a rewarding position. Moreover, the obsession with becoming successful while criticizing the work of others without remorse and reflection, the enclosure within the university walls, and the lack of willingness to get a grasp of the data in the field all indicate the bad tendencies of the discipline. To illustrate this better, he refers to one of Schiffer's accounts (Schiffer 1978, p. 247): "I feel free to pursue the study of laws whenever it leads. I do not feel the need to break the soil periodically in order to reaffirm my status as archaeologist."
     Theoretical archaeology (anthropological archaeology) is devoted to very limited boundaries. Over more than 20 years, the so-called problem-oriented approach in archaeology developed a particularistic research strategy only capable of seeing particles but not the entire complexity of the context. The inappropriate and somehow isolated focus of archaeological philosophy is even more exaggerated. More than the production of general laws and the models of predictable behavior, the deep need to also know how to collect and assess the artifacts, structures, organic, environmental and other types of data is a highly desirable aspect.
     Behind the wise words of the Old Timer, Flannery argues for a dynamic approach that does not ignore the tenets of traditional archaeology while treating the wholeness of culture. Theory is also an indispensable tool but always and only when intertwined with the data, context and dirt. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Fogelin, Lars
2007 "Inference to the Best Explanation: A Common and Effective Form of Archaeological Reasoning"
in American Antiquity 72.4, pp. 603-625.
2.8.2
     Despite seemingly large theoretical differences between archaeological approaches (e.g. processual vs. post-processual archaeology), Fogelin shows the same underlying principles of reasoning are used. This ts what he calls 'inference to the best explanation', understood as "given our data and background beliefs, we infer what would, if true, provide the best of the competing explanations we can generate of those data" (quoting Lipton, p. 604). Important for archaeology, Fogelin adds, "The ability of an explanation to explain a wide variety of data makes it more likely to be true". While this manner of reasoning is already widely used in archaeology, Fogelin suggests improvements by providing clear criteria for what makes a compelling explanation (and the more compelling an explanation, the more likely it is to be correct). These criteria can also be used to detect 'bad' explanations, as even the best explanation can in fact be bad. Thus, a compelling argument might have one or more of the following "virtues": 1) generality, 2) modesty, 3) refutability, 4) conservatism, 5) simplicity, and 6) addresses multiple foils. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Foley, John Miles
1991 Immanent Art. From Structure to Meaning in Traditional Oral Epic
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. xvi-278.
15.4
15.11.2
16.6.1
Th: broken traditions
     An extensive discussion (with ample documentation from archaic Greek, Serbo-Croatian and Old English traditions) of the formal mechanisms that can be assumed to have governed oral poetry. It is important in two respects for our interests. (1) The analysis of oral traditions explores the survival into "post-traditional" texts of oral themes and expressive mechanisms ("post-traditional" texts being defined as "the kind of work whose meaning derives chiefly from a single text created by a single author and specifically without dependence on an oral tradition", p. 6 n.12). This is in explicit contrast with Derrida's insistence on language being ordained to writing. (2) In contrast, structural conditioning of expression depends on "traditional referentiality," i.e., on the coherence of a vast cultural context that is part and parcel of individual expression: a deeper understanding of these structures is indispensable in order to arrive at a fuller appreciation of the intended meaning. – [Giorgio Buccellati, March 2014]
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Foucault, Michel
1970 The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences
New York: Vintage Book Edition.
1972 The Archaeology of Knowledge
London: Tavistock Publication Limited.
4.1
15.13
Th: broken traditions
     A nonconformist voice that deals with the implications of the understanding of knowledge and its hermeneutics. Foucault offers a vibrant approach that critically tackles the broadly defined emphasis of the humanities, reconfiguring knowledge into its deepest and most comprehensive labyrinths. The book constructs a methodological framework equipped with leading concepts of thinking and formulating. Archaeology is addressed as its own premise, but is evoked as Focault's own concept of archaeology, which infers a methodological scheme which systemically orders our thoughts, levels thinking, object and regularities of discourse, and the reach of statements. The criticism mostly focuses on the premises of structuralism, implying a multidimensional level of query and research. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
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Frabetti, Federica
2011 "Rethinking the Digital Humanities in the Context of Originary Technicity"
in Culture Machine 12, pp. 1-22.
Available online: www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/view/431/461
11.1.2
11.6
     A significant contribution that stresses how "the digital humanities must think digitality critically, first of all by questioning the assumptions of rationality that are at the foundation of digitality. The model(s) of rationality on which digital technologies are based cannot be 'imported' unquestioningly into the humanities. ... Indeed, on the one hand the digital humanities are the ideal place to investigate the mutual co-constitution of technology and the human. The originary connection between technology and language places technology at the core of the humanities. On the other hand, the specificities of singular encounters between instances of digital technologies and instances of the humanities must be investigated" (p. 16f.). This conclusion is based on a detailed and insightful review of the work by Stiegler (pp. 6-8, 13-16), Derrida (pp. 8-10) and Leroi-Gourhan (pp. 10-13), all of which parallels closely the point of view developed in CAR. – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2015]
2015 Software Theory. A Cultural and Philosophical Study
London: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. xxxii-188.
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Friendly, Michael
2002 "Visions and Re-Visions of Charles Joseph Minard"
in Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 27.1, pp. 31-51.
11.4.2
     Includes Minard's statistical graphics of Napoleon's 1812 campaign in Russia. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Fritz, J.; F. Plog
1970 "The Nature of Archaeological Explanation"
in American Antiquity 35, pp. 405-412.
     Fritz and Plog take a positivist approach to archaeological data, attempting to formulate a framework in which universal laws are formulated, tested and used in a deductive manner. This framework is in contrast to the empiricist method proposed by B.K. Schwartz, among others, and draws on the positivist model for scientific explanation proposed by Hempel & Oppenheim. The example they give is that of the classification of archaeological artifacts as explanation. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Gadamer, Hans-Georg
1960 Hermeneutik I. Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik
Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).
First published in 1960; cited according to the 1986 edition as Gesammelte Werke, Vol. 1.
15.5
16.6.2
16.6.3
16.8.2
1976 Philosophical Hermeneutics
Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.
1.1.4
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Gardin, Jean-Claude
1970 Archéologie et calculateurs: problèmes sémiologiques et mathématiques, Marseille 7-12 avril, 1969
Paris: éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
13.1
1976 Code pour l'analyse des formes de poteries
with Jean Chevalier, Jacques Christophe and Marie-Rose Salomé
Analyse documentaire et calcul en archéologie
Paris: CNRS, pp. 116.
1979 Une archéologie théorique
Paris: Hachette, pp. 339.
1980 Archaeological Constructs. An Aspect of Theoretical Archaeology
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. XII-202.
2.2.3
3.1
5.6
10.1
15.13
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Gardin, Jean-Claude; Christopher S. Peebles (eds.)
1992 Representations in Archaeology
Indiana University Press, pp. XII-394.
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Gardner, Andrew
2008 "Agency"
in Bentley et al. 2008, pp. 95-108.
6.3.3
16.4.1
     Clear and thoughtful description of the concept of agency as applied in archaeology. While acknowledging the difficulty of an exact definition of the term, Gardner explains (human) agency as a kind of active involvement in the world. When applied, this usually refers to more specific situations or things.
     Agency is often seen in opposition to - or more accurately, as parallel to - the concept of structure. This is where structure is understood as society, its organisations and standards at large, where individuals and their actions are easily lost. Humans as social actors instead reflect this aspect of more individual influence (more or less consciously).
     For a more in-depth understanding of the concept and surrounding debate, which is partly tied to broader theoretical debates and trends in archaeology, Gardner provides a history of how 'agency' has been applied and understood, both in archaeology and in the humanities in general. – [Laerke Recht, March 2016]
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Gasche, H.; Ö. Tunca
1983 "Guide to Archeostratigraphic Classification and Terminology: Definitions and Principles"
in Journal of Field Archaeology 10, pp. 325-335.
Th: stratigraphy
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Gero, Joan M.
1996 "Archaeological Practice and Gendered Encounters with Field Data"
in Rita P. Wright (ed.), Gender and Archaeology.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 251-280.
2.8
4.1
Excerpts
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     Challenging the view that scientific research and archaeological practice is objective and neutral, Gero demonstrates that this is also closely associated with a 'masculine' research style which involves more clearly delineated hierarchies and a binary logic that obliterates the ambiguous or not easily classified. Part of the illusion of total objectivity can be found in the way archaeological data are published in formal accounts, in the sense that a 'sterile' image is usually presented, removing people, tools and excess dirt from excavation photographs, for example, thereby giving the idea that people were not in fact at every step part of the process of creating the image.
     The use of binary, structural ideologies essentially simplify data in order to clarify, and this is particularly relevant to the way data are recorded and presented and have consequences for what is ultimately learned and remembered. – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
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Giannichedda, Enrico
2002 Archeologia teorica
Roma: Carocci, pp. 125.
15.13
     A short but excellent overview of archaeological theory. The author is very thoughtful in his assessment of the field, and proceeds with a style that makes the explanation of even difficult concepts accessible to first-timers, and yet is engaging for the professional because of his insight and wit. The argument flows naturally, and the role of individual major figures in the field is presented within the narrative so that they appear as protagonists of a coherent story, rather than as a necessary tribute to bibliographical completeness. An example of this is the treatment of middle range theory (pp. 74-76) and the way in which figures like Braudel (pp. 65-68) or Lévi-Strauss (pp. 98-101) are set in a context that brings out most clearly their contribution to archaeology. There is a central focus to the book that makes it almost more of an interpretive essay than a simple review of information, and that is the interaction between processual and post-processual archaeology, and ways in which this interaction marks the way for the future.
     [It is significant that even in a work as carefully thought through as this one, the theoretical dimension of stratigraphic analysis is completely missing. The theory here illustrated is exclusively the theory of inference, nothing is said about the theory of observation.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, July 2013]
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Gibbon, Guy
1989 Explanation in Archaeology
Oxford: Blackwell, pp. X-206.
15.12.4
     Beginning with an introduction to logical positivism, this work goes on to give an account of New Archaeology and its inherent problems. The first two chapters of the book form the background against which Guy Gibbons sets his account of New Archaeology. This was a movement, which found favour with a significant number of archaeologists during the 1960s and early 1970s to make archaeology truly scientific. Traditional archaeological practice was felt to lack the power to explain archaeological data. Limiting itself to the recovery, description and classification of such data, it was little more than curio-collecting antiquarianism. Yet, the author argues, New Archaeology was doomed to failure, for several reasons. He reveals its flaws, and considers the extent to which its successor, Realist Archaeology, is better equipped to reveal the structures and processes of past societies which have produced the archaeological record. Dr Gibbon concludes with a discussion of a series of general questions concerning the history and methodology of archaeology and its relationship to other sciences – [Publisher's summary]
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Giddens, Anthony
1984 The Constitution of Society. Outline of the Theory of Structuration
Cambridge: Polity Press.
     Anthony Giddens has been in the forefront of developments in social theory for the past decade. In The Constitution of Society he outlines the distinctive position he has evolved during that period and offers a full statement of a major new perspective in social thought, a synthesis and elaboration of ideas touched on in previous works but described here for the first time in an integrated and comprehensive form. A particular feature is Giddens's concern to connect abstract problems of theory to an interpretation of the nature of empirical method in the social sciences. In presenting his own ideas, Giddens mounts a critical attack on some of the more orthodox sociological views. The Constitution of Society is an invaluable reference book for all those concerned with the basic issues in contemporary social theory. – [Publisher's summary]
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Ginzburg, Carlo
1979 "Spie. Radici di un paradigma indiziario"
in A. Gargani et al., Crisi della ragione. Nuovi modelli nel rapporto tra sapere e attività umane.
Torino: Einaudi Paperbacks, pp. 1-30.
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Givón, Talmy; Bertram F. Malle (eds.)
2002 The Evolution of Language out of Pre-Language
Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamin Publishing.
11.1.1
     This collection of essays is a look at the emergence of language in evolutionary terms. As the authors note in the introduction, "[s]trictly speaking, we do not have extant examples of either primitive language or primitive brain tissue" (p. vii). However, we have analogies, and steps before and after, and we therefore do have the possiblity of attempting to reconstruct how language came to be in a biological / adaptive sense. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Golden, Mark; Peter Toohey
1997 Inventing Ancient Culture: Historicism, Periodization and the Ancient World
London and New York: Routledge, pp. x-238.
16.6.1
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Goode, James F.
2007 Negotiating for the Past: Archaeology, Nationalism, and Diplomacy in the Middle East, 1919-1941
Austin: University of Texas Press.
8.12
     A very specific case study of the relationship between archaeology and politics, especially nationalist movements. The focus is on American involvement in archaeology in Iran, Turkey, Egypt and Iraq in the two decades following WWI. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Gosden, Christopher
1999 Anthropology and Archaeology: A Changing Relationship
London and New York: Routledge.
2.1
     Another contribution to the archaeology-anthropology debate, also containing a historical account. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
     The disciplines of archaeology and anthropology have, since their beginnings, influenced and informed each other. Chris Gosden charts and analyses their changing relationship, and provides a valuable and much-needed introduction to the theories and methods of these two inter-related subjects. This volume covers the historical relationship and contemporary interests of archaeology and anthropology. It takes a broad historical approach, setting the early history of the disciplines within the colonial period during which the Europeans encountered and attempted to make sense of many other peoples. It shows how the subjects are linked through their interest in kinship, economics and symbolism, and discusses what each contribute to debates about gender, material culture and globalism in the post-colonial world.
     This book is unique in its survey of both anthropology and archaeology. This dual consideration is necessary as each discipline has continuously influenced the other. Together, anthropology and archaeology can inform us of the full variability of life, past and present.
     Anthropology and Archaeology is an indispensable guide to each discipline for students or researchers studying archaeology, anthropology, or both subjects. – [Publisher's blurb]
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Gosden, Christopher; Yvonne Marshall
1999 "The Cultural Biography of Objects"
in World Archaeology 31.2, pp. 169-178.
15.10.5
     This paper is an introduction to a volume on the relationship between objects and people. The concept of object biographies is in focus, where the entire 'life history' of an objects is attempted, from its creation through multiple uses and a range of 'owners' and a possible ending (so far) in a museum display. Things can thus change meaning and function. The concept is closely related to those of materiality and agency, with objects understood not as simple, purely utilitarian, but as influencing humans and human behaviour. As the authors put it, "The central idea is that, as people and objects gather time, movement and change, they are constantly transformed, and these transformations of person and object ar tied up with each other" (p. 169). – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Greenberg, Joseph H.
1960 "A Quantitative Approach to the Morphological Typology of Language"
in International Journal of American Linguistics 26.3, pp. 178-194.
     A purely preliminary attempt, as Greenberg admits, at the application of quantification in the typology of language. In fact, the content addresses the implication of quantification only partially, showing greater concern with the history of classification and the approaches that have impacted this issue the most. The two main methodological agendas (comparative and typological linguistics) are discussed. Heavy criticism is directed at the historic-genetic method, seen as a strategy which leaves no room for further evaluations and classifications. The racial classification and classifications of the nineteenth century in general are treated in a similar fashion, where three types are identified: isolating, agglunative and inflective.
     Greenberg sees the lack of taxonomic implications in the field as shocking and, together with Charles Hockett, attempts to remedy this absence. The paper considers notable efforts like those of Von Humbolt, Schlegel and Sapir, but relies on an inductive quantitative scheme that concludes with a typological index comprised of ten piers: (1) M/W - index of synthesis; (2) A/J - index of aggulutination; (3) R/W - compounding index; (4) - D/W derivational index; (5) I/W - gross inflectional index; (6) P/W - prefixal index; (7) S/W - suffixal index; (8) O/N - isolational index; (9) Pi/N - pure inflectional index; and (10) Co/N - concordial index.
     The narratives interfere rather heavily with implication of this index in a particular language. However, the attempt must be appreciated for its inductive focus applied to the typology of languages. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
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Grier, Michelle
2012 "Kant's Critique of Metaphysics"
in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Summer 2012 edition.
Available online: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archives. [Accessed 27 July 2016]
14.5.1
14.7.4
     This essay primarily discusses the Critique of Pure Reason and Kant's criticism and rejection of previous theories concerning synthetic a priori judgements. This includes a confrontation with other thinkers' arguments about the knowledge of metaphysical entitites such as the soul, the world and God (Kant's Dialectic). – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Guidi, Alessandro
2002 "Dalle comunità di villaggio alle soglie dell'urbanizzazione in Europa dal Neolitico all'età del ferro"
in Il Mondo dell'Archeologia: Dai primi insediamenti al fenomeno urbano. Europa tra preistoria e protostoria.
Available online: www.treccani.it [accessed October 2014]
15.9
     An informative encyclopaedia article that summarizes the European material in Guidi 2000. It gives ample space to the development of the first human settlements in the Balkan Peninsula, and it stresses especially two types of data: (1) the size of some V/IV millennium B.C. settlements, which can reach up to 250, and in one case, even 450 hectares (in Romania and the Ukraine); and (2) some surprising architectural features, such as protective palisades and moats. By the III and II millennium B.C. there develops an impressive network of villages; the pile dwelling in northern Italy (from the II millennium B.C.) exhibits a remarkable regularity in the arrangement of houses, even though the size of the settlement is more modest. By the first millennium, several settlements in Italy develop proto-urban characteristics, with Rome reaching some 100, and Como some 150 hectares.
     [The author is cautious in drawing inferences from the data, e. g., by placing in quotes references to "cult" places or to "prestige" objects. More importantly, he spells out clearly the presuppositions that lead to speak, for instance, of the growth of pastoralism or the increase in "conflictuality."] – [Giorgio Buccellati and Camillo Bartolini, November 2014]
2009 Preistoria della complessità sociale
Quadrante Laterza 107. Bari: Laterza, pp. XII-286. (Second edition, first edition 2000)
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Gumerman, George J.; David A. Phillips Jr.
1978 "Archaeology beyond Anthropology"
in American Antiquity 43.2, pp. 184-191.
2.1
14.6.4
     Rather than a pre-established agenda that assume an organic connection between archaeology and anthropology, archaeology must maintain an autonomous focus. Gumerman and Phillips criticize the exaggerated intrusion of formal explanatory or descriptive models (Read and LeBlanc 1978) into the discipline, which create evasiveness between the data and the models. They state that, "in our opinion, the actual application of these models has generally been trivial or fairly crude. Computer packages and philosophers of science have been 'used' in the most mechanical sense; system theory, ecology and other disciplines have been raided for concepts that are used out of any warranted generalizing context."
     They evaluate the active involvement of other parameters and aim to situate the discipline on a practical ground. The intention is not to ignore or exclude other fields with evident potential in archaeological research. Instead, both authors see the discipline pursue an interdisciplinary road that employs methods, techniques and practices from other fields. Several examples show the application of fields like zoology, botany, the use of the ecotone concept, and locational analysis illustrates efficient cases intertwined with archaeological data. Gumerman and Phillips argue for a more significant role of archaeological techniques and also greater communication between Classics, Near Eastern studies and Art History. Anthropological theory should not be neglected, but topic-related subjects that most benefit archaeology (e.g. economics, psychology, geography) must be given priority. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
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Halbwach, Maurice
1992 On Collective Memory
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Th: broken traditions
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Harding, Anthony
2009 "Towards a European Archaeology"
in World Archaeology 41.4, pp. 629-640.
2.1
     With a focus on western European vs middle European archaeology, Harding discusses some of the differences in archaeological theory and practice in European countries. He also notes the predominant use of English for any discourse that transcends national boundaries. Although regrettable, this does provide a venue for communication and sharing of ideas.
     See also Cooney 2009. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Harland, Richard
1993 Beyond Superstructuralism
London: Routledge.
     Casting a critical eye upon the position described in his previous book, Superstructuralism, Richard Harland claims that structuralist and post-structuralist approaches to language are fatally limited by their focus upon single words. Instead he offers the alternative of a syntagmatic approach, arguing that the nature of meaning is radically transformed in the movement from single words to sentences. The effect of combining words grammatically is seen to be more dramatic than any existing theory (European or Anglo-American) has yet recognized. The wide breadth of coverage in the book takes in post-Chomskyan linguistics, deconstruction, Analytic and speech-act views of language. Harland challenges the very foundation of recent language theory, opening up a range of novel options for literary criticism, linguistics and philosophy.
     Moving on from his previous book, Superstructuralism, Richard Harland argues that the focus on single words in the structuralist theory of language is its key weakness and that the next advance beyond post-structuralism depends upon replacing word-based with syntagm-based theories. Harland lucidly develops a new syntagmatic theory which shows that the effect of combining words grammatically can transform the very nature of meaning. The wide breadth of coverage in the book covers both post-Chomskyan linguistics and Derrida, and sets up an opposition to analytic and speech-act theories of language. By presenting a systematic critique and counter-proposal, Harland challenges the very foundation of recent literary and linguistic theory. – [Two published abstracts]
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Harris, Edward
1975 "The Stratigraphic Sequence: A Question of Time"
in World Archaeology 7.1, pp. 109-121.
See also the Harris website
2.3
4.2
5.1
15.10.5
Excerpts
     A brief but explicit background on stratigraphy and stratigraphic sequence. It focuses on the explanation and analysis of stratigraphy, offering clear definitions and schemes that help understanding and interpretation. – [Esmeralda Agolli, July 2014]
1979 Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy
First edition. London: Academic Press.
5.4
1979 "The Laws of Archaeological Stratigraphy"
in World Archaeology 11.1, pp. 111-117.
2.3
15.10.5
Excerpts
     Harris offers a brief and explicit overview. The few pages of the paper provide a clear emphasis on four designated laws of archaeological stratigraphy: the law of superposition, the law of original horizontality, the law of original continuity and the law of stratigraphic succession. – [Esmeralda Agolli, June 2014]
1989 Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy
Second edition. London: Academic Press.
Available online: www.harrismatrix.com
4.2
Excerpts
Th: stratigraphy
     The book elaborates in detail the stratigraphic principles set out in previous papers. After a history of the background of stratigraphy in geology and its development in archaeology, Harris explains his four principle of stratigraphy. This culminates in his introduction and explanation of the so-called Harris Matrix - the diagram used to illustrate stratigraphic relations between units. He then goes on to practical concerns about best ways to record stratification, including best kinds of plans and section drawings (based on his recommendation of the single context recording system), and how to create correlations and phasing. – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
2013 "Urban Sites and the Stratigraphic Revolution in Archaeology"
in Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 23.1, pp. 1-5.
Th: stratigraphy
     Review andsummary of Harris' own work on stratigraphic principles (explicitly referred to as a revolution in archaeological stratigraphy) and the use of the Harris Matrix, and the status today. – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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Harris, Roy
1987 Reading Saussure. A Critical Commentary on the Cours de linguistique générale
La Salle (Illinois): Open Court.
1.2
14.10.1
15.3
15.4
17.4
     Commenting in depth on De Saussure's book (see De Sassure 1972), Harris highlights some points that are of central importance for our interest in proposing a linguistic model for archaeological analysis.
     (1) The object of study is not a given, but is rather created by the discipline (hence the definition of linguistics follows its application): "at no level of linguistic observation are simple autonomous units to be found" nor is there ever "just a single dimension or a single criterion involved in identifying such units" (p. 15); therefore, in Saussure's words, "it is the viewpoint adopted which creates the object" (pp. 14, 29)
     (2) How does linguistics relate to semiology? Harris proposes that Saussure introduced semiology in order to free linguistics from its subservience to philology and historical phonetics and to establish it as a model for the social sciences (p. 30f). – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2013]
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Harris, Zellig
1960 Structural Linguistics
Chicago: University of Chicago Press (fourth edition).
Originally published as Methods in Structural Linguistics, 1951.
Excerpts
     The foundational statement about dsitributional analysis in linguistics, building on Bloomfield and Sapir. The book is a highly technical linguistic study, but it is relevant for our purposes because of the clarity with which the basic principles are stated and the rigor with which they are applied to the data. Extensive Excerpts from the book give the major pertinent statements on this topic. – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2014]
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Harrison, Rodney
2011 "Surface Assemblages: Towards an Archaeology in and of the Present"
in Archaeological Dialogues 18.2, pp. 141-161.
2.4.2
     One branch within archaeology has become generally known as 'archaeology of the contemporary past'. It applies archaeological methods to the present, but some of the characteristic parts of archaeology are difficult to use, including excavation. The object of study is also not removed in the way that it usually is. This has led to what the author sees as an identity crisis and exaggerated continued justification for the discipline by its practitioners. To mitigate this, he suggests a move away from the centrality of excavation towards surface assemblages. Harrison thinks that the separation of past and present into an us vs them, the past as 'other' is a problem resulting from modernity, and one that we urgently need to move away from. As part of this, archaeology should not be defined by excavation. This way, archaeology can be about both the present and the future.
     The ideas presented here do not align with the understanding of archaeology in CAR, and the concept of broken traditions. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Hauser, Rick
2007 Reading Figurines
Animal Representations in Terra Cotta from Royal Building AK at Urkesh (Tell Mozan)
Urkesh/Mozan Studies 5.
Malibu: Undena Publications.
Available online: www.urkesh.org > eLibrary > Books
7.2.1
15.11.3
     An exhaustive substantive treatment of a well defined corpus, with important methodological considerations. – [Giorgio Buccellati]
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Hawkes, Christopher
1954 "Archaeological Theory and Method: Some Suggestions from the Old World"
in American Anthropologist 56.2, pp. 155-168.
2.1
15.9
15.10.5
     A thoughtful evaluation of the two traditions in archaeology: Old and New World. Hawkes simply wonders to what extent we understand the archaeological evidence and what types of inquiries are to be challenged. Features like the historicism and text-aid known as leading concepts of the Old World are faced with the anthropological and ethnographic agendas of the New World. Hawkes introduces the so-called "conjunctive approach", arguing for a cohesive agenda which takes into serious consideration the stratigraphic facts, text, ethnography, environment, ecology, natural resources and so on. Similar to other approaches of this time, the culture system remains at the center of attention. To this day, the most valuable and somehow discussed argument remains the introduction of the ladder of inference. Hawkes constructs a hierarchical system of classification which indicates the increasing scale of difficulty for four aspects in the archaeological record. From the easiest to the most difficult, Hawkes recounts the investigation of techniques, technology and subsistence and economics as easier issues to deal with and two other aspects like the socio-political institutions and religions as highly challenging in any stratigraphic context or dataset. – [Esmeralda Agolli, July 2014]
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Hayden, Brian
1984 "Are Emic Types Relevant to Archaeology?"
in Ethnohistory 31.2, pp. 79-92.
3.4.1
6.2
     An useful overview of classification and typology. It focuses on the emic types and how ethnographic case studies contribute to the understanding and designation of a meaningful typology. The first part offers a brief historical overview of the research history of classification and typology, establishing the terminological clarification between the two.
     The second part discusses the emic types from ethnographic cases, highlighting the obstacles one encounters while deriving the emic-etic analogy: 1) language and terminology - a given category of object depending on function may be defined with various terms in different cultures, an aspect which has great impact on the designation of variables and in the construction of etic typology; 2) the particularities of an artifact tied to a separate term must be associated with a special function with social, religious, ideational meaning; 3) the emic categories vary within communities according to the specific role given from the individuals that produce them; 4) most commonly, behaviors and actions are not explained by people. The scientific queries remain inexplicable in the situations where artisans or apprentices make an artifact during normal routine, never receiving any formal schooling or sophisticated expression and 5) most attitudes and traditions are acquired by imitation. Due to such phenomena, their explanation and typology may remain enigmatic.
     Beyond the above limitations, however, Hayden values greatly the potential of correlations between ethnographic emic types for etic purposes. This analogy may result in insights if the parameters of the data are carefully selected, and the special attention an individual or artisan dedicates to particular attributes of an artifact is taken into consideration. – [Esmeralda Agolli, June 2014]
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Hayles, N. Katherine
1999 How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
12.5
     In this age of DNA computers and artificial intelligence, information is becoming disembodied even as the "bodies" that once carried it vanish into virtuality. While some marvel at these changes, envisioning consciousness downloaded into a computer or humans "beamed" Star Trek-style, others view them with horror, seeing monsters brooding in the machines. In How We Became Posthuman, N. Katherine Hayles separates hype from fact, investigating the fate of embodiment in an information age. Hayles relates three interwoven stories: how information lost its body, that is, how it came to be conceptualized as an entity separate from the material forms that carry it; the cultural and technological construction of the cyborg; and the dismantling of the liberal humanist "subject" in cybernetic discourse, along with the emergence of the "posthuman." Ranging widely across the history of technology, cultural studies, and literary criticism, Hayles shows what had to be erased, forgotten, and elided to conceive of information as a disembodied entity. Thus she moves from the post-World War II Macy Conferences on cybernetics to the 1952 novel Limbo by cybernetics aficionado Bernard Wolfe; from the concept of self-making to Philip K. Dick's literary explorations of hallucination and reality; and from artificial life to postmodern novels exploring the implications of seeing humans as cybernetic systems. Although becoming posthuman can be nightmarish, Hayles shows how it can also be liberating. From the birth of cybernetics to artificial life, How We Became Posthuman provides an indispensable account of how we arrived in our virtual age, and of where we might go from here. – [Publisher's abstract]
2005 My Mother Was a Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
12.5
     We live in a world, according to N. Katherine Hayles, where new languages are constantly emerging, proliferating, and fading into obsolescence. These are languages of our own making: the programming languages written in code for the intelligent machines we call computers. Hayles's latest exploration provides an exciting new way of understanding the relations between code and language and considers how their interactions have affected creative, technological, and artistic practices. My Mother Was a Computer explores how the impact of code on everyday life has become comparable to that of speech and writing: language and code have grown more entangled, the lines that once separated humans from machines, analog from digital, and old technologies from new ones have become blurred. My Mother Was a Computer gives us the tools necessary to make sense of these complex relationships. Hayles argues that we live in an age of intermediation that challenges our ideas about language, subjectivity, literary objects, and textuality. This process of intermediation takes place where digital media interact with cultural practices associated with older media, and here Hayles sharply portrays such interactions: how code differs from speech; how electronic text differs from print; the effects of digital media on the idea of the self; the effects of digitality on printed books; our conceptions of computers as living beings; the possibility that human consciousness itself might be computational; and the subjective cosmology wherein humans see the universe through the lens of their own digital age. We are the children of computers in more than one sense, and no critic has done more than N. Katherine Hayles to explain how these technologies define us and our culture. Heady and provocative, My Mother Was a Computer will be judged as her best work yet. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Headland, Thomas; Kenneth L. Pike; Marvin Harris
1990 Emics and etics. The Insider/Outsider Debate
Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Introduction available online: www-01.sil.org/~headlandt/ee-intro.htm
3.4.1
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Hegmon, Michelle
1992 "Archaeological Research on Style"
in //Annual Review of Anthropology" 21, pp. 517-536.
     Hegmon states: “Researchers have recognized that no single theory can explain all aspects of *!style*!, or all facets of material culture variation, and they have likewise recognized that style is not a unidimensional phenomenon.” (p.522) The approach taken in the article is one of a review of the current theories relating to style, to identify commonalities and to explain differences between these theoretical approaches. She discusses specific themes, and relates the diverse opinions posited by different theoretical schools; some of these themes are: Learning and Interaction, Social Distinctions, and Power and Social Inequality. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Hegmon, Michelle; et al
2014 "The Human Experience of Social Change and Continuity: The Southwest and North Atlantic in 'Interesting Times' ca. 1300"
in Sheila Kulyk, Cara G. Tremain and Madeleine Sawyer (eds.), Climates of Change: The Shifting Environment of Archaeology.
The University of Calgary: Chacmool Archaeological Association, pp. 53-67.
[Hegmon is cited as the main author, with 13 additional co-authors.]
16.9.4
     The United Nations Development Programme has proposed seven factors that may help assess "human securities, which, in contrast to national security, focus on what people actually experience physically, socially and environmentally" (p. 54). These criteria pertain to economics, food, health, environment, individual and community behavior, political institutions. The article applies them to two distinct archaeological contexts, in the American Southwest and the North Atlantic, focusing on the question as to whether continuity is better than collapse (see especially p. 64). [The article is significant because of the detail with which the criteria are applied to the archaeological data: in this respect, "experience" is not left vague, but is brought down to a very manageable level. However, the notion of experience remains ambiguous. It is more a question of "response" (pp. 58; 64) than of experience, if by this we mean the impact on the responders' consciousness.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
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Hegmon, Michelle; Stephanie Kulow
2005 "Painting as Agency, Style as Structure: Innovations in Mimbres Pottery Designs from Southwest New Mexico"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 12, pp. 313-334.
14.1
16.9.2
     Taking as its starting point Giddens' notion of structure as existing "only as memory traces, the organic basis of human knowledgeability, and as instantiated in action" (Giddens 1984, p. 377), structure is then defined as existing "only in so far as it is reproduced by the conduct of actors" (p. 316). Rather than something static, structure is viewed only as linked, dynamically, to agency as the capacity of implementing things. In this sense, agency "can only be understood in terms of its recursive relationship with structure" (p. 228); in fact, "instances of innovation (i.e., changes in structure) are particularly significant for investigating the recursive relationship between agency and structure" (p. 314). Thus the particular focus of the article is on "the structure-agency dialectic" and on the "recursive relationship of agency and structure" (p. 314). In this perspective, it is in the instances of innovation, as the change from one state to another, that one can detect agency as the constitutive element of structure (p. 314, 317). To the extent that these innovations are accepted and become part of tradition, they provide an example of "structuration" in Giddens' terms (p. 317). Innovation is defined as a structural "anomaly" that becomes part of a later tradition (p. 321), i.e., into the "structure" (p. 322) [in other words, an anomaly is not in itself an innovation: it can be considered as such only when it becomes productive – hence, an "agent"]. Applying in detail this concept to a body of ceramics from the American Southwest (Mimbres, pp. 323-329), the main conclusion reached (p. 329f.) regards the interaction between painting as agency [dynamically] and style as structure [inevitably to be seen as static, though this is not acknowledged]. Two other conclusions regard, briefly, the relationship between innovation and conformity (p. 330f.) and intentionality, where it is suggested that "innovative acts are more likely to be intentional challenges to tradition" (p. 331). – [The article points out the potential vagueness of the notion of "agency," and the stated goal is to offer a methodology that might allow a more concrete handling of the dynamics involved. This is significant, but the argument ends up with an essential antinomy that is not resolved: the dynamics of structuration depends in fact on the static analysis of structure as known from the artifacts. The "compositional analysis" of ceramics (pp. 318, 320) remains essentially static. It is the problem of a broken tradition that is not sufficiently taken inot account.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
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Heidegger, Martin
1927 Sein und Zeit
Halle a.d. Saale: Niemeyer.
Citations are to pages from the 2001 edition, Tübingen: Niemeyer.
2.2
2.4.2
13.4.2
Excerpts
1947 Über den Humanismus
Bern: Francke Verlag.
Citations are to pages from the 10th edition, Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 2000.
Excerpts
2010 Vom Wesen der Sprache
Frankfurt am Mein: Vittorio Klostermann.
Excerpts
     Mit diesem Band erhält Heideggers vielfältiges Nachdenken über Wesen und Wesung der Sprache wichtige Ergänzungen. Für ein zweistündiges Oberseminar im Sommersemester 1939 setzte er sich mit Herder und dessen preisgekrönter Schrift "über den Ursprung der Sprache" auseinander. Die Aufzeichnungen zu den übungen führen unmittelbar in die Werkstatt des Denkers, indem sie den Leser teilnehmen lassen an den Fragen, mit denen Heidegger die Darstellung von Herders Gedanken begleitet. Sie leben aus der Gegenüberstellung von metaphysischer und seinsgeschichtlicher Betrachtung der Sprache, dem Kreisen um die Grenzen der Metaphysik und dem Bemühen, den "anderen Anfang" zu finden und von dorther die alten Fragen neu zu denken. Das eigentliche Ringen geht in immer neuen Ansätzen um den übergang von der Metaphysik der Sprache gemäß der abendländischen Tradition - der Mensch als animal rationale - zum "erdenkenden Einsprung in die Wesung des seynsgeschichtlichen Wortes". Drei Gedichte Stefan Georges dienen als Beispiel für das "übergängliche" Wort.
     Den Aufzeichnungen Heideggers sind die Protokolle von Teilnehmern des Seminars beigegeben. Sie spiegeln den Gang der übungen und die dort erzielten Ergebnisse. Damit ist Gelegenheit gegeben, neben dem Denker Heidegger nun auch dem Lehrer über die Schulter zu schauen. – [Publisher's summary]
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Herz, Norman; Ervan G. Garrison
1997 Geological Methods for Archaeology
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
5.1
7.4.3
15.10.5
     This essay is a scientific explanation of the emplacement of artifacts using methods derived from geology. This article supplements Buccellati's discussion on the difference between emplacement and deposition. Herz and Garrison's article describes the methodology behind understanding the deposition of an artifact. – [Heidi Dodgen, February 2013]
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Hill, James N.
1968 "Broken K Pueblo: Patterns of Form and Function"
in Sally R. Binford and Lewis R. Binford (eds.), New Perspectives in Archaeology.
Chicago: Aldine, pp. 103-142.
     In his article, Hill argues that by using scientific methods in archaeology and ethnographic studies, one can understand life patterns of ancient individuals. To illustrate this approach, he attempts to determine the use or function of various dwellings at a site he excavated in Arizona. He utilizes modern ethnographic studies and evidence from the archaeological record to make a case for determining living spaces and kitchens at the ancient site. – [Heidi Dodgen, April 2013]
1978 "Individuals and Their Artifacts: An Experimental Study in Archaeology"
in American Antiquity 43.2, pp. 245-257.
7.4.1
     An intense account, full of analysis and results from an interesting experimental case study! Hill conducts a highly complex approach attempting to identify the individual choices in artifacts and to what extent they may reflect social organization. Several characteristics or law-like statements configure a common prehistoric context including craft specialization, exchange, residence units, and population movement.
     The case of the so-called Tijuana pot experiment focuses on 75 ceramic vessels purchased in a shop at Tijuana. Four different design motifs were given to several potters for painting on fifteen vessels. The painted vessels were then broken and a selection of variables (caught on sherds) became subject of discriminant analysis and clustering classification. A similar experiment was executed in the hand writing of various individuals in order to investigate their performance over time.
     Hill expressed some enthusiastic comments about this experiment, noticing above all its benefits and applications to archaeological data. His tentative conclusions determine: 1) three of four variables are usually sufficient to isolate the work of the individuals; 2) the variables measured appeared to represent subconscious variability; as such they almost certainly cannot be taught or shared among individuals, regardless of shared heredity or shared contexts of learning; 3) Inter-individual variability is much more conspicuous using these variables than in intra-variability; 4) Individual motor-performance characteristics change remarkably little through time; and 5) Such characterictics are unaffected by variability in the manufacturing tools employed, the speed or carelessness of manufacture, illness, fatigue or other factors. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Hillman, James
1972 The Myth of Analysis: Three Essays in Archetypal Psychology
in Studies in Jungian Thought.
Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
     The analytical method in psychology is itself a myth, that must be dissected. Of particular interest for our purposes is the second part, devoted to psychological language. As a critique of established methods, it seeks to shed light on the way in which the unconscious can be reined in through special control mechanisms. – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2013]
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Hodder, Ian
1982 The Present Past: An Introduction to Anthropology for Archaeologists
New York: Pica Press.
8.12
16.9.2
1982 "Theoretical Archaeology"
in I. Hodder (ed.), Symbolic and Structural Archaeology, pp. 1-16.
     Hodder defines New Archaeology, in this article, as a form of functionalism which uses an “organic analogy” to describe society. After showing how prominent “New Archaeologists” use functionalist precepts in their work, he proceeds to a critique of functionalism itself: input from external sources, culture more than mere function, relationship between individual and society, cross-cultural generalizations. He then defines structure in terms of pattern and style, and as code, and gives a critique of structuralism in general. He embraces aspects of structuralism, and points to examples from other contributions in the same volume. In the conclusions he rejects the definition of culture as extrasomatic means of adaptation, suggesting instead that it is meaningfully constituted. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
1987 "The Contextual Analysis of Symbolic Meanings"
in I. Hodder (ed.), The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings, pp. 1-10.
     In a rebuttal to criticisms of his Symbolic and Structural Archaeology, Hodder attempts to show that the direction he proposed for archaeology is feasible and rigorous. In this article he explores 'meaning' in archaeology, with a focus on the function, structure and content of meaning, and how these three aspects have been developed to differing degrees in archaeology. A 'con-textual' approach is proposed, whereby material culture is examined as if a text. The example given is that of Collett's analysis of iron furnaces in Africa, reexamined as if text. He then gives an outline of the other contributions to the volume, and emphasizes the need to understand the roles of idea, belief and symbolic meaning in social action. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
1992 "Haddenham Causewayed Enclosure - A Hermeneutic Circle"
in Theory and Practice in Archaeology.
     Archaeologists employ a hermeneutic method to learn about the past from archaeological material according to Hodder. Hodder's hermeneutic spiral involves three elements: material culture, theory, and the archaeologist. The archaeologist examines the material culture and tests theories to see what best explains the material culture. – [Heidi Dodgen, April 2013]
1999 The Archaeological Process: An Introduction
Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 260.
13.1
2001 Archaeological Theory Today
Edited by Ian Hodder. Cambridge: Polity.
15.13
     This collection of essays on theory in archaeology brings together a number of topics currently being discussed, including behavioural archaeology, evolutionary archaeology, cognitive archaeology, symbol and agency theories, phenomenology/landscape and postcolonical archaeology.
     In the introduction to these essays, Hodder considers the status and types of theories most current in archaeology and advocates an acceptance of the diversity they represent, rather than 'bemoaning' a perceived loss of unity. He shows how different theories are associated with specific research questions. These questions are often related to different time scales, and and levels of community. Each theory has certain merits for answering certain questions, and in fact the divergences need not be as large as is often claimed. Overall, Hodder sees a change towards (or back to) 'things' in archaeological theory, where materiality and the relationship between humans and objects come to the fore, partly replacing language-based models. Finally, it seems some archaeologists at least have now gained enough confidence in the discipline to contribute to discussions in other disciplines, rather than simply borrowing from them - the special expertise of the archaeologist being "both the long term and the materiality of human life" (p. 11). – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
2002 "Ethics and Archaeology: The Attempt at Çatalhöyük"
in Near Eastern Archaeology 65.3, pp. 174-181.
8.12
     Hodder here illustrates in very practical terms the way the project at Çatalhöyük engages with various stakeholders. He presents four 'groups': politicians (local and international), local residents, New Age goddess followers and artists. While archaeologists and academics have their own research agendas and questions, Hodder believes that they are also ethically obligated to address the questions of stakeholders. These are used to engage with the topics that are relevant to each group, and to provide basis (or refutation) for their arguments. To this end, ethnographers are part of the team, working to find out what questions interest the stakeholders.
     In practical terms, this means analysing the data in ways that will help answer such questions, for example by examining evidence for gender distribution to determine if there is evidence for a female authority, or DNA analysis to determine genetic background and relation to current populations. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
2003 Archaeology beyond Dialogue
Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
8.12
Excerpts
     This book is a collection of Hodder's own essays (a few written with other authors). They reflect his approach to various archaeological topics, especially in relation to theory in archaeology. Hodder's idea of 'reflexive' archaeology is discussed, along with an emphasis on social archaeology, a specific aspect of agency and individuality. The use of micro-archaeology is illustrated especially in the later papers, and a concern for responsible practice that engages the array of 'stakeholders' is a theme throughout. Çatalhöyük remains the main starting point, but sites in the UK are also discussed.
     See under Excerpts for an extended summary and excerpts. – [Laerke Recht, November 2016]
2005 "Post-Processual and Interpretive Archaeology"
in Renfrew & Bahn 2005, pp. 155-159.
Th: excavation
     Good short discussion of post-processual / interpretive archaeology, both as a critique of processual archaeology and as presenting new methodologies. This includes the close connections with gender archaeology, phenomenology, hermeneutics and agency. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
2012 Entangled: An Archaeology of the Relationships between Humans and Things
Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
     1. Thinking about things differently. – The goal is to look at things in themselves and in terms of their interconnection ("co-entanglement," p.3). A basic presupposition is that things are not inert (p.5). [Unfortunately, inertness is not defined.] – Things are in fact described as active subjects: they "assemble" (p.8), they "bring humans and nonhumans together in heterogeneous mixes" (p.8), they have a "point of view" (p.12), they "gather humans" and "make us" (p.13), seem "to have agency" (p.14). Thus the goal is redefined as aiming to identify in things their "objectness, a stand-in-the-wayness to things that resists, that forms, that entraps and entangles" (p.13). – As part of this approach, it is stated that "humans are thing, ... just bundles of biochemical processes," although, to be sure, "if a human is a thing, it is a thing of a particular kind" (p.9).
     2. Humans depend on things.
     [Three major points, closely linked to each other, are missing in H.'s theory.
     (1) Definition of inertia. – The concept is invoked frequently, but only to negate that it is a quality of "things." "Vibrancy" is the opposite quality, that is, it is said, the proper attribute of things. They are vibrant because they are not inert. But it is not made clear what either term means. Also
     (2) The notion of control. –
     (3) The question of maximization. – A key point that is missing in H.s theory is the question of maximization. The wider and the more complex the system of connections become, the more able given individuals become in identifying the more relevant nodes and to maximize their relevance, hence the efficiency of the whole system. One goes then, we might say, from an entangled "meshwork" (Ingold) to a proper network. This is at the core of the urban revolution, where the leadership provides the essential directional thrust for the community, so that it does not become suffocated by sheer inertia under the weight of complexity. This is at the core of political development. – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
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Hodder, Ian; Lewis Binford; N. Stone
1988 "Archaeology and Theory"
in Man 23.2, pp. 373-376.
     This article represents two letters written after the publication of Binford's Huxley Lecture in Man as "Data, Relativism and Archaeological Science" – the first is a critique of the lecture by Hodder, the second a rebuttal by Binford and Stone. The two letters clearly show the conflict between the approaches of New Archaeology and Post-Processual Archaeology, and how the personalities behind these theoretical positions also play their part in the critique of each other's positions. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Hodder, Ian; Scott Hutson
2003 Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology
3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [First edition: 1986].
1.2
5.1
15.10.4
15.13
Summary
Excerpts
Th: excavation
     The main goal of the authors is to discuss "widely varying theoretical approaches to the past" (Preface to the first edition, p. XI) presenting the main modern theories about archaeology, specifically the Marxist, structuralist, processual and positivist approaches (chapters 1-4).
     In the second part (chapters 5-10) the focus is on finding the best way for archaeologists to give meaning to the archaeological record (i.e. "a series of events," p. 144). To achieve this aim, the authors try to define the main features of archaeology: 1) archaeology "should recapture its traditional links with history" (ivi, p. 125), and 2) "the reading of the archaeological record is constrained by the interpretation of context" (p. 5).
     [The analysis of the archaeological record may be compared with that in CAR where the aim is to clarify the two main concepts of emplacement (i.e. "the way things are in the ground: their physical juxtaposition, their reciprocal contacts are the proper and exclusive subjects of observation," 2.2) and of deposition (i.e. "the assumed process through which things have come to be in the ground: it can never be observed, but only inferred," ibid). The central point of the comparison is based on the difference between Hodder's context [see the related Excerpts] and Buccellati's emplacement, a concept that seems more suitable to explain the depositional processes through a strict analysis of the result of deposition.
     An aspect both the authors agree on is instead the notion that all the data are actually "not given," p. 146: "Properly speaking, the data do not exist because they are perceived or 'given' within a theory"; and CAR, 1.5: "The process of stratigraphic excavation entails that data are not in fact given (paradoxically, the data are not "data"!). They are the construct of the excavator's observational itinerary"].
     Although the theoretical approach to the stratigraphy given by Hodder and Buccellati is different (i.e., in Hodder context : deposition; in Buccellati emplacement : deposition), we can see that both authors stress the importance of a good definition of the method used to give meaning to the many types of data found during excavation. – [Marco De Pietri, November 2014]
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Hodder, Ian; Michael Shanks; Alexandra Alexandri; Victor Buchli; John Carman; Jonathan Last; Gavin Lucas (eds.)
1995 Interpreting Archaeology: Finding Meaning in the Past
London and New York: Routledge.
2.4.1
10.7
15.13
16.1
16.7
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Hodson, F.R.
1982 "Some Aspects of Archaeological Classification"
in Whallon & Brown 1982, pp. 21-29.
3.5.2
     The paper treats essential concepts of the classification process in archaeology. The pivotal argument regards the theoretical and methodological underpinnings which define the type in archaeological data. Hodson follows a hierarchical order, explaining the ambiguity of basic concept like attributes, which in cases may refer to a variable (color, width, length) or be used to describe a certain state. The perception and delineation of the type also bears some ambiguity. Hodson avoids the dissection (defining a type based on metric differences) by using the properties of the material instead (obsidian vs. flint) as primary elements and employs the item (attribute)-clustering definition which allows the types to be divided according to their respective units. He supports the employment of the numerical approach to measure and further analyzes the properties of a type. – [Esmeralda Agolli, March 2014]
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Holborn, Hajo
1950 "Wilhelm Dilthey and the Critique of Historical Reason"
in Journal of the History of Ideas 11, pp. 93-118.
     A review of Dilthey's work at a time when it was not yet widely known in the English world. It gives a thoughtful assessment of Dilthey's position vis-a-vis Kant [in spite of the term Critique of Historical Reason being used in Holborn's title, there is no discussion as to why this phrase, originally chosen as the title of Dilthey's work, was eventually dropped]. An interesting argument is made (p. 106f.) regarding Rickert's introduction of the concept of idiographic vs. nomothetic dimensions: Dilthey rejected this, and the term "Kulturwissenschaften," because the human condition is too complex to be possibly subsumed within a nomothetic system (as sociology or psychology would do). One of Dilthey's merits was to emphasize the significance of a holistic approach to psychology (p. 111), which led to the introduction of the concept of "Gestalt" psychology [and also developed Kant's contribution to the notion of structure]. Shifting away from psychology as the underlying foundation of philosophy, Dilthey developed a doctrine of hermeneutics (p. 112). – [Giorgio Buccellati, October 2013]
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Hollinger, Robert
1976 "Aspects of the Theory of Classification"
in Philosophy and Phenomenological Society 36.3, pp. 319-338.
     The paper offers a high level theory on the conceptualization of classification and treats the benefits and flaws of several philosophical approaches. It maintains a general focus, not immediately associated with the archaeological context. Hollinger takes a universal perspective on classification, analyzing three particular categories: natural classification, modified conventionalism and radical conventionalism. He discusses the agendas of several philosophers like Hampshire and Goodman, who express extensive skepticism of classification, seeing it as a process defined by natural laws. Instead, Holliger sees the study of classification through a relativist agenda, alternatively called "pragmatic opacity" and attempts to achieve an objective scheme of classification regardless of the conventional interventions on the matter. Indeed, elements such culture, language, time and place have an undisputed role in any theory building on classification. However, according to Hollinger, such matter cannot be 'submitted' to the laws of nature or be entirely ignored. – [Esmeralda Agolli, August 2014]
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Holly, Michael Ann
1984 Panofsky and the Foundations of Art History
Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, pp. 267.
16.4.3
     A very insightful work, this book has direct relevance for the concerns of CAR in two ways. First, the concept and the process of iconology as described here bears significantly, if only implicitly, on the concept of archaeological reason. Second, the broad historical contex twithin which the specific work of Panofsky is placed serves to illuminate the role that philosophy has had in its interaction with art history, and in so doing Holly contributes to a better understanding of how archaeological theory can be placed in turn in its wider context.
     Holly's great merit is to present these complex issues in a penetrating, yet very lucid style, from the more synthetic overviews of the precedents and the contemporaries of Panofsky (chapters 1 and 4 respectively), to the detailed analysis of Panofsky's relationship to Wölfllin (ch. 2), Riegl (ch. 3) and Cassirer (ch. 5). Thus, for instance, the discussion of Riegl's Kunstwollen is in line with the idea of the contrast between broken and connected tradition. Archeaological Reason aims to recreate the shared values which are no longer shared, and Kunstwollen as the "stylistic intent" (p. 74) is just that.
     In the last chapter, Holly indicates how the late Panofsky began to "neglect more and more" his theoretical presuppositions, (esp. p. 174): my assumption is that, in fact, Panofsky was not as keen about the theoretical dimension of his approach as it may seem. She relates (pp. 171-174) various opinions that fault Panofsky for such a lack of theoretical coherence, and art history as contributing to modern thought. – [Giorgio Buccellati, March 2016]
1996 Past Looking: Historical Imagination and the Rhetoric of the Image
Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
15.3
16.4.3
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Hörisch, Jochen
1992 Tauschen, sprechen, begehren. Eine Kritik der unreinen Vernunft 15.2
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Horning, Audrey
2011 "Compelling Futures and Ever-Present Pasts: Realigning the Archaeology of Us"
in Archaeological Dialogues 18.2, pp. 161-164.
2.4.2
     Horning here responds to the paper by Harrison. Overall, she agrees with his points, and notes that with a background in anthropology, she is well aware that an archaeology of the present is possible, and the continued justification is unnecessary. However, she disagrees with the possibility of separating the effect of modernity from current studies. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Hrouda, B.
1971 Handbuch der Archäologie: Vorderasien I
pp. 303-313.
     Hrouda presents a definition of archaeology inexorably tied to archaeological fieldwork; he writes that fieldwork "vermittelt durch ihren Befund einen direkten Zugang zur antiken Kultur." (303) Stratigrahy, classification in typologies, art historical approaches, the study of architecture and C14 are all integral parts of Hrouda's understanding of the methods and goals of archaeological research. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Huggett, Jeremy
2012 "Lost in Information? Ways of Knowing and Modes of Representation in E-Archaeology"
in World Archaeology 44.4, pp. 538-552.
9.7
     In this contribution to the topic of digital archaeology, Huggett especially discusses the issue of standardisation. The use of digital applications and recording assumes a positivistic, objective and unproblematic approach to archaeological data and observation. Setting aside the questioning of this assumption in the last decades, other issues remain, including standardisation. Standardisation is required in order to place data within a system (Huggett calls it "cyberinfrastructure", but the point applies equally to non-digital systems). It allows extensive comparison and linking of data, but runs the risk of over-simplifying data and losing complexity. Any recording also involves interpretation of exactly what is included: this always means that some aspects are left out because they are deemed insignificant or not contributing knowledge. However, "it is difficult to argue against the need for standards: one need only come up against a large chaotic set of data to realize that some degree of standardization has its place" (p. 542).
     Huggett argues that while standardisation is a pre-requisite, it is increasingly important in digital contexts that the standardisation process itself is well-considered and transparent. For this purpose, he offers a list of questions that can be used as a kind of check on one's process.
     This paper is part of a World Archaeology volume dedicated to digital archaeology. See Lake 2012. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
2013 "Disciplinary Issues: Challenging the Research and Practice of Computer Applications in Archaeology"
in Earl et al. 2013, pp. 13-24.
2.7.1
13.1
     CAA meetings have taken place since 1973, yet the field is still often described as emerging. This may partly be an issue of semiotics, with a shift from 'archaeological computing' and 'computer archaeology' to 'digital archaeology', 'computational archaeology' and 'archaeological information science'. This shift reflects broader changes in the sciences and humanities (influenced by politics and funding requirements), but also indicates a possible crisis of identity in the discipline.
     Huggett discusses this question of identity by attempting to define the field and its role - is digital archaeology (by whatever name) a field in its own right, or merely a sub-field or tool of archaeology? In order for it to become a field in its own right, it needs what Huggett calls 'Grand Challenges' - "As a subject area, digital archaeology receives rather than gives, which means that it is rarely perceived as a donor or reference field. Where are the 'big ideas' that are generating large-scale finance, and which have the potential to transform the practice of archaeology and contribute to theories and methods in other fields?" (p. 16).
     Quoting Llobera, Huggett points to the fact that digital archaeology has not adequately tranformed archaeology and how we approach the information we collect, and we fail to seriously undertake theoretical discourse - "We are able to record information much more quickly in the field but to what degree is this 'new information'? How much has it changed the way we conduct our analysis? We have the capacity to process and visualize information in novel ways but are we actually doing this? More importantly, are we even thinking about new possibilities? How do these new developments relate, if at all, with theoretical orientations currently found in archaeology? Has the introduction of information systems precipitated new ways of doing archaeology? . . . In some cases, archaeologists brush off any concerns about these deficiencies by claiming that they are just archaeologists and not computer scientists. They are simply applying what is on offer and that is that. All that is needed then is to mention the limitation to make it right and to proceed as usual. Actively engaging in understanding the underpinnings of applications, let alone developing them, is generally not considered to be archaeology even among many of those trained in IT within the discipline" (p. 17, quoting Llobera 2011, p. 217). – [Laerke Recht, January 2015]
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Hurt, Teresa D.; Gordon F.M. Rakita
2001 Style and Function: Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Archaeology
Westport and London: Greenwood Publishing Group.
7.6
     Envisioned as a response and development of Robert Dunnell's seminal paper "Style and Function: A Fundamental Dichotomy", this collection of essays discusses aspects of style and function especially in relation to seriation and classification. Dunnell himself provides the Foreword, where he elaborates on some of the issues which he feels has been misunderstood (in particular his definitions of both the concept of style and of function), and where he might have expressed himself differently.
     Style is essentially the basis of seriation, and so represent a dimension of time. The dichotomy is stated by Dunnell as, "Different processes explain the two kinds of traits. Style is explained by drift. Function is explained by selection." (p. xviii, original emphasis). The ideas started by Dunnell are enumerated, challenged, explained and tested in the essays that follow. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Husserl, Edmund
1913 Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie
Erstes Buch: Allgemeine Einführung in die reine Phänomenologie
Jahrbuch für Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschung 1,1.
2.4.2
15.11.3
16.9.1
     One of Husserl's major works on phenomenology, building on the earlier Logical Investigations. The phenomenological approach or method is a 'sience' which seeks to outline and understand the structure of consciousness and how phenomena are presented or given to us through consciousness. Husserl is particularly concerned with what he calls intentionality, that is consciousness of. In order to focus on the workings of consciousness (rather than its content), Husserl uses the concept of epoché, a 'phenomenological reduction' which involves a suspension of what he calls the natural attitude, the bracketing of the positing of being. In other words, the question of reality (partly a reaction to the Cartesian problematising of the knowledge of existence) is put aside, irrelevant, for the purposes of phenomenological investigation. – [Laerke Recht, May 2013]
1991 On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time (1893-1917)
Translated by John Barnett Brough.
Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
11.3.2
     This is an interesting contribution to the concept of time from a phenomenological perspective. Husserl investigates how time is perceived and constructed in human consciousness - its intentionality. Through this, a complex, multilinear structure appears, consisting of a "now" that is in constant, continuous alteration (and in this sense cannot really be grasped). A flux of relations between past, present and future occurs as retention (immediate recollection, different from remembering), primary impression and protention (immediate intention of expectation) are part of the same given experience of time. The example given by Husserl is that of a melody, where the immediately given tones always blend with those just given and those about to be played. This flux of relations and multilinearity can also be said to appear in archaeological discourse; at another level, it leaves open the possibility of other ways of perceiving time. – [Laerke Recht, March 2017]
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Hymes, M.D.
1970 Linguistic Models in Archaeology
Paris: éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
17.4
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Jabr, Ferris
2013 "The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper versus Screens"
in Scientific American April 11, 2013.
Available online: www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/
12.2.2
12.2.5
     This essay provides a good discussion of the effect of reading printed paper versus reading on a screen, surveying the current status of research on the topic. Various studies have suggested that reading on a screen is mentally more challenging, makes it more difficult to concentrate, and tends to be taken less seriously. Other studies do not find significant differences.
     One reason for screen-'reading' to be more difficult might be the way the brain processes text: as a kind of 'topography' similar to the way landscape is perceived and remembered, which is less clear on a screen. Screen texts limit navigation and the overall feel of where you are, and this seems to impair comprehension - "Because of their navigability, paper books and documents may be better suited to absorption in the text."
     There are also studies suggesting that memory-turned knowledge is better when reading paper compared to a screen. The survey is very interesting in terms of measures to be taken and the attitude of the reader/user when creating digital texts. – [Laerke Recht, March 2016]
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James, N.
2016 "Replication for Chauvet Cave"
in Antiquity 90.350, pp. 519-524.
9.4
     Short explication and analysis of the recent replication of the Chauvet Cave. The question is asked as to when it is justifiable to close a site to the public and instead offer the replication. And how does the replication affect the original and interpretations thereof? Replication is reproduction and itself always involves some level of interpretation, even if it aims to mirror the original as closely as possible. In terms of a cave like this, consideration must be given to temperature, humidity, lighting, topology, landscape, environmental setting and which parts to include. Decisions regarding all of these are interpretations, and in the case of Chauvet, it was decided to focus on the most spectacular pieces of art. That means that other things are absent, e.g. the unevenness of the floor, the exact physical setting (most likely unreplicable in any case). – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Jameson, John H.; Sherene Baugher (eds.)
2007 Past Meets Present: Archaeologists Partnering with Museum Curators, Teachers, and Community Groups
New York: Springer.
9.6
     Various aspects of 'public archaeology' are discussed in this collection of essays. Archaeologists increasingly need to engage with people outside the discipline (the 'public' in its broadest definition). Rather than the theoretical focus found elsewhere, this volume addresses requests for practical case studies that illustrate how engagement can take place, especially within economic restraints. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Jazykova, Irina
2002 «Io faccio nuova ogni cosa». L'icona nel XX secolo
Bergamo: La casa di Matriona.
     The book is divided into eight chapters, in which the author retraces the vicissitudes of the icons from the eve of the Red Revolution (end of the XIXth century) to the fall of the USSR (end of the XXth), passing through the exodus to Europe of Russian intelligencija and the terrible persecutions of the Bolshevik government. Jazykova looks at the phenomenon of Russian iconography as the expression of a spiritual sensibility deeply rooted in orthodox faith, and for this reason she follows the tradition of icons not only in Russia but also in those places (such as western Europe) where Russian sensibility and faith found a fruitful ground for their growth during the "red terror" and still find a place of expression in contemporary iconographic schools.
     The author supports this thesis: there is no basis for "the idea that the icons' tradition was broken and that icon painters today have to start from scratch" (p. 27). [This helps define the notion of a broken tradition, 2.3, by highlighting the subterranean elements that may help a tradition survive in terms of sensibility, even when the outward formal mechanisms no longer remain active.]
     In the second chapter, talking about the exodus to Europe of Russian intelligencija, she clarifies her opinion with Grigorij Krug's words: "The veneration of icons in the Church is like a lighted lamp, whose light will never die. It was not turned on by human hands, and since then it has never failed. It shined, shines and will never cease to shine. And when, due to the absence of religious piety, the creative energy of the icon dries up and it seems to lose the glory of its heavenly dignity, even then the light dries up, but continues to shine" (p. 55). De facto, Russian iconography shared the destiny of the life of the Church, which was forced to take clandestine forms in USSR territories. [It may be legitimate to speak about a "icons' samizdat", that always maintained their tradition. And this samizdat is connected to the lives of single personalities: Dimitrij Stelleckij, Nun Ioanna, Grigorij Krug, Marija Sokolova, Father Zinon Teodor.] – [Margherita Grassi, October 2014]
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Jeffrey, Stuart
2012 "A New Digital Dark Age? Collaborative Web Tools, Social Media and Long-Term Preservation"
in World Archaeology 44.4, pp. 553-570.
13.5.12
     A so-called 'Digital Dark Age' occurred with the advent of the first digital advances, both in archaeology and other disciplines. This Dark Age consisted of a lack of digital infrastructure to match the new technologies, meaning that data was lost because the means did not yet exist to preserve it in its new format. While the problems of this are now largley solved, the author wants to try to mitigate a second Dark Age especially related to the use of social media as an archaeological tool. Social media here includes blogs, networking sites (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, academia.edu), collaboration tools (e.g. Skype, Wikia, Google Drive, Dropbox), and multimedia sharing sites (e.g. Flickr, YouTube). Although much of the activity here may not contain meaningful information in the long term, some does and the concern is that currently very few measrues exist for preserving them.
     The preservation of digital data is a real concern and one that most archaeologists today must face and consider how to approach. Some of the aspects concerned are listed by Jeffrey as data corruption, media obsolescence, software and inadequate metadata [work on the Urkesh Global Record has in fact faced all of these at one point or another, and procedures put in place that take them into account].
     This paper is part of a World Archaeology volume dedicated to digital archaeology. See Lake 2012. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Jingchen, Wang
2006 "The Conservation and Presentation of Large-Scale Archaeological Sites in Liaoning, China"
in Agnew and Bridgland 2006, pp. 298-302.
9.1
     The article presents the practical cases of two Chinese archaeological sites, each of which poses different problems to conservators, connected to the different materials exposed (stones, mud, earth) and to the area covered by the remains (extremely large in one case, extending up to 50 square kilometers). Different techniques have been used on the sites: backfill, chemicals, protective shelters, restoration: in each case a brief explanation of the reasons behind the different decisions is presented. These practical examples are interesting in the light of what is presented under the name of "Disposition" in the ninth chapter of CAR: there, in fact, the importance of the appropriate ideological approach to the architectural remains is discussed. [Even though "Presentation" should be a complementary part of this article, the paragraph related to this is unfortunately quite short and leaves the reader with many open questions on the subject.] – [Stefania Ermidoro, January 2014]
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Johnsen, Harald; Bjørnar Olsen
1992 "Hermeneutics and Archaeology: On the Philosophy of Contextual Archaeology"
in American Antiquity 57.3, pp. 419-436.
2.5.1
4.1
15.6
15.13
     The paper offers a reflective and penetrating voice on hermeneutics and contextual archaeology. Several questions include: to what extent can we approach the past?; what defines our thoughts?; how does the present impose our views and interpretations on the past?; and how does contextual archaeology play a different role in the understanding and interpretation of the past?
     The first part offers an overview on early hermeneutics, treating in particular the contribution of the German tradition. In similar vein with other post-processualists, Johnsen and Olsen express explicit criticism of processual archaeology, especially towards its exaggerated focus on natural sciences and so-called scientifically tested results. Their relativist perspective instead brings to the discussion the potential of historical explanation with the epistemology of hermeneutics.
     The second part takes a closer look at the dichotomy between archaeology and hermeneutics, taking as a focal point Hodder and his work on the matter. Although a pioneer in the field, Hodder only scratched the surface of hermeneutics, not being able to offer a robust and cohesive voice regarding its benefits in contextual archaeology. Without reservation, Johnsen and Olsen mention several of his papers, arguing especially for the lack of coherence. Indeed, Hodder was able to pinpoint some valid points in the sphere of hermeneutics; like the impact of our present towards the past, the impossibility of grasping an absolute understanding of the archaeological context, the colonialist impact, the diachronic association of events and so on. However, each of these questions only remained sporadic views expressed here and there, never able to formulate a cogent approach in archaeological hermeneutics.
     The third part deals with the relevance of hermeneutics to epistemology of archaeology. It mainly focuses on the German tradition, dealing in particular with the hermeneutics of Gadamer (Gadamer 1960, 1976). Gadamer brought to attention the issues of historical distance, modes of perception, changes in the meaning of words, and world views or prejudice. He also expressed a constructive criticism of early hermeneutics and attempted to perceive hermeneutics not only as a way of thinking but also as a methodological tool.
     Finally, Johnsen and Olsen argue for a coherent use of hermeneutics in contextual archaeology. Any interpretation in archaeology springs from the present and instead of ignoring this fact, we should recognize it as a precondition. Indeed, we must consider also that our attempt to approach the past by no means helps our understanding of the present. Gadamer may very well serve as a starting point in the understanding and application of hermeneutics in our field. – [Esmeralda Agolli, August 2014]
     Johnsen and Olsen critically discuss Hodder's "contextual archaeology" within the framework of hermeneutics. First, an overview of hermeneutics from Schleiermacher to Dilthey is presented; a discussion of hermeneutics and archaeology follows, focused particularly on Hodder's frequent references to Collingwood. Finally the authors propose that the German school of Hermeneutics is more appropriate for the types of analysis proposed by Hodder, in particular the work of Gadamer. – [Federico Buccellati, June 2017]
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Johnson, Matthew H.
2006 "On the Nature of Theoretical Archaeology and Archaeological Theory"
in Archaeological Dialogues 13.2, pp. 117-132.
15.13
     The topic of this paper is whether or not there is theory in archaeology. The author answers both yes and no. Yes in the sense that theoretical discussions and approaches are indeed abundant and an important part of archaeology. No in the sense that there is not a single theory specific to archaeology subscribed to by a majority of archaeologists. In giving his more detailed reply, Johnson notes an 'under-theorisation' of the relationship between theory and practice.
     Two 'case studies' of archaeological theory is used by the author to illustrate his argument: agency theory and phenomenology. The discussion provides some useful insights into the history and advantages of these theories (as well as some shortcomings). – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Jolles, Frank
1999 "German Romantic Chronology and its Impact on the Interpretation of Prehistory"
in Murray 1999a, pp. 49-60.
2.1
     In 18th century Germany, chronology was a distinct discipline in German universities. Jolles examines the history of this discipline, especially in its religious context and beginnings. It was initially used to support Biblical timelines, but this became more and more difficult to maintain when related to empirical data, which suggested that the world and human habitation extend far further back than the flood. Although the concept of evolution was not yet dominant, some ideas of progression were still present. Kant believed that there is a purpose to human nature, and that there is a steady upwards curve towards the ideal. This is accomplished through the greed and antagonism instilled in humans; humans are destined to achieve goals beyond a quiet and harmonious shepherd life. Partly in contrast, Herder argues from a totality of empirical data as collected by him (rather than Kant's base in moral principles), and argues that cultural adaptations are based on environment. In his view, humans' purpose is in fact the quiet garden life, and this can happen at any stage under the right circumstances, and so is not a unilinear progression towards the ideal.
     In the end, Jolles reaches a conclusion in stark contrast to that of Cremo, seeing the endeavours of chronological research as now entirely detached from any religious bases, "In Germany, the turning point in the philosophical debate was reached with the publication of Herder's Ideen, which proposed an evolutionary model for the development of human society, and with the subsequent criticism of that model on moral grounds by Kant. The effect was to disassociate chronology from religion. This ushered in an era of historical and anthropological inquiry free from dogmatic influence and gave a new lease of life to the discipline of Universalhistorie." (p. 59). – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
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Jones, Andrew
2007 Memory and Material Culture
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
15.4
     We take for granted the survival into the present of artefacts from the past. Indeed, the discipline of archaeology would be impossible without the survival of such artefacts. What is the implication of the durability or ephemerality of past material culture for the reproduction of societies in the past? In this book, Andrew Jones argues that the material world offers a vital framework for the formation of collective memory. He uses the topic of memory to critique the treatment of artefacts as symbols by interpretative archaeologists and artefacts as units of information (or memes) by behavioral archaeologists, instead arguing for a treatment of artefacts as forms of mnemonic trace that have an impact on the senses. Using detailed case studies from prehistoric Europe, he further argues that archaeologists can study the relationship between mnemonic traces in the form of networks of reference in artefactual and architectural forms – [Publisher's blurb]
     This book demonstrates how concepts of agency, materiality and embodiment can be used in archaeology. Jones focusses on how objects work as mnemonic devices, both affected by and affecting people. Memory (and forgetting) may be embedded in human-object relations. Further, memory is not limited to mind: "it is important to underline the importance of pursuing memory beyond the confines of the brain and to consider its relationship with the body. ... Memory is effectively sedimented in the very movement of the body." (p.11) – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Joukowsky, Martha
1980 A Complete Manual of Field Archaeology: Tools and Techniques of Field Work for Archaeologists
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
2.8.1
2.8.2
4.6.1
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     An excellent manual that deals exclusively with "tools and techniques" (as the subtitle properly says) including the two chapters on stratigraphy and excavation (pp. 150-199). – [Giorgio Buccellati]
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Joyce, Rosemary A.
2002 The Languages of Archaeology: Dialogue, Narrative, and Writing
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
11.5
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Jung, Carl Gustav
1935 "Über die Archetypen und des kollektiven Unbewußten"
in Eranos-Jahrbuch.
Zürich: Rhein-Verlag.
Reworked in 1954 and reprinted in Gesammelte Werke, Vol. 9/I, pp. 13-51.
Cited after the edition München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1990.
14.11
     After a brief history of the term "archetype," Jung addresses the role of mysticism and the role of dogma as articulated thought that aims to channel intuition. Protestantism led to an increased poverty of symbols, and the study of dreams helps in reassessing the role of dreams (water is given as an example). Three major archetypes are then presented: shadow as a symbol of danger (psychology goes beyond symbols), the soul (not as a dogmatic concept, but as the living eneergy that works as an apriori, p. 29, rooted in perception rather than thought, p. 35f.), and wise man. – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
1936 "The Concept of the Collective Unconscious"
in Journal of the Abernethian Society at St. Bartholomew's Hospital 44, pp. 46-49 and 64-66.
The original German text was published as "Der Begriff des kollektiven Unbewußten" in Gesammelte Werke, Vol. 9/I, pp. 55-66.
     Noting that the concept of collective unconscious has been widely misunderstood, Jung gives a detailed definition. It is a portion of the psyche that does not derive from personal experience. It is in contrast with the personal unconscious, which rests on original personal experiences that have been forgotten. The concept of archetype refers to specific forms that the collective unconscious can take. It corresponds to the "motifs" of mythology, the "représentations collectives" of the psychology of "primitive" people (Lévy-Bruhl), the categories of imagination of Mauss and the elementary thoughts (or "Urgedanken") of Adolf Bastian. This collective unconscious is not developed individually, but inherited. It consists of pre-existing forms, the archetypes, which emerge to the level of consciousness only secondarily and give a specific shape or form to the contents of consciousness. Particular attention is given in the rest of the paper to the question of how such a collective unconscious can be "demonstrated". – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
1985 Die Archetypen und das kollektive Unbewußte.
Gesammelte Werke, Vol. 9/I. Olten: Walter-Verlag, 19856.
14.12
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Kadare, Ismail
1980 The Palace of Dreams
London: Vintage Books.
14.8.1
     An intriguing subject set in a grotesque and fictional context. The book is by no mean associated with archaeology. The story takes place in the Ottoman Empire, depicting the heavy constrains and restrictions on everyone under a totalitarian rule. Beyond any expectation and imagination, the plot revolves around an epic classification scheme of simple night dreams of the people under the rule. The entire process is conducted formally by a highly important institution of the empire which supposedly uses the dreams as tools for getting an understanding and prediction of the fate and future of the Empire. Indeed, the subject can only be inspirational to someone dealing with artifact classification and probably an illustration of the extent to which etic choices of scientific nature may seriously be challenged by exterior agents. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Kansa, Eric
2012 "Openness and Archaeology's Information Ecosystem"
in World Archaeology 44, pp. 498-520.
Available online: www.escholarship.org/uc/item/4bt04063
11.4.4
13.5.11
     The rise of the World Wide Web represents one of the most significant transitions in communications since the printing press or even since the origins of writing. To Open Access and Open Data advocates, the web offers great opportunity for expanding the accessibility, scale, diversity and quality of archaeological communications. Nevertheless, Open Access and Open Data face steep adoption barriers. Critics wrongly see Open Access as a threat to peer review. Others see data transparency as naively technocratic and lacking in an appreciation of eScholarship provides open access, scholarly publishing services to the University of California and delivers a dynamic research platform to scholars worldwide. archaeology's social and professional incentive structure. However, as argued in this paper, the Open Access and Open Data movements do not gloss over sustainability, quality and professional incentive concerns. Rather, these reform movements offer much needed and trenchant critiques of the academy's many dysfunctions. These dysfunctions, ranging from the expectations of tenure and review committees to the structure of the academic publishing industry, go largely unknown and unremarked by most archaeologists. At a time of cutting fiscal austerity, Open Access and Open Data offer desperately needed ways to expand research opportunities, reduce costs and expand the equity and effectiveness of archaeological communication. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Kansa, Eric; Sarah Whitcher Kansa
2013 "We All Know That a 14 Is a Sheep: Data Publication and Professionalism in Archaeological Communication"
in Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 1, pp. 88-97.
Available online: escholarship.org/uc/item/9m48q1ff
13.5.11
     Archaeologists create vast amounts of data, but very little sees formal dissemination. This failure points to several dysfunctions in the current structures of archaeological communication. The discipline urgently requires better data professionalism. Current technologies can help ameliorate this, but scholars generally lack the time and technological know-how to disseminate data. We put forth a model of "data sharing as publishing" as a means to address the concerns around data dissemination. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Kansa, Eric; Sarah Whitcher Kansa; Margie M. Burton; Cindy Stankowski
2010 "Googling the Grey: Open Data, Web Services, and Semantics"
in Archaeologies: Journal of the World Archaeological Congress 6, pp. 301-326.
Available online: escholarship.org/uc/item/8jc6s6zn
13.5.11
     Primary data, though an essential resource for supporting authoritative archaeological narratives, rarely enters the public record. Lack of primary data publication is also a major obstacle to cultural heritage preservation and the goals of cultural resource management (CRM). Moreover, access to primary data is key to contesting claims about the past and to the formulation of credible alternative interpretations. In response to these concerns, experimental systems have implemented a variety of strategies to support online publication of primary data. Online data dissemination can be a powerful tool to meet the needs of CRM professionals, establish better communication and collaborative ties with colleagues in academic settings, and encourage public engagement with the documented record of the past. This paper introduces the ArchaeoML standard and its implementation in the Open Context system. As will be discussed, the integration and online dissemination of primary data offer great opportunities for making archaeological knowledge creation more participatory and transparent. However, different strategies in this area involve important trade-offs, and all face complex conceptual, ethical, legal, and professional challenges. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Kansa, Eric; Sarah Whitcher Kansa; Ethan Watrall (eds.)
2011 Archaeology 2.0: New Approaches to Communication and Collaboration
Cotsen Digital Archaeology Series, Vol. 1.
Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology.
Outcome of a session held at the 2008 meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Available online: escholarship.org/uc/item/1r6137tb
13.1
13.5.11
     How is the Web transforming the professional practice of archaeology? And as archaeologists accustomed to dealing with "deep time", how can we best understand the possibilities and limitations of the Web in meeting the specialized needs of professionals in this field? These are among the many questions posed and addressed here. With contributions from a range of experts in archaeology and technology, this volume is organized around four key topics that illuminate how the revolution in communications technology reverberates across the discipline:
     1. approaches to information retrieval and information access;
     2. practical and theoretical concerns inherent in design choices for archaeology's computing
     infrastructure;
     3. collaboration through the development of new technologies that connect fieldbased researchers and specialists within an international archaeological community; and
     4. scholarly communications issues, with an emphasis on concerns over sustainability and preservation imperatives.
     This book not only describes practices that attempt to mitigate some of the problems associated with the Web, such as information overload and disinformation, it also presents compelling case studies of actual digital projects - many of which are rich in structured data and multimedia content or focused on generating content from the field "in real time", and all of which demonstrate how the Web can and is being used to transform archaeological communications into forms that are more open, inclusive, and participatory. Above all, this volume aims to share these experiences to provide useful guidance for other researchers interested in applying technology to archaeology. – [Slightly modified publisher's abstract]
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Kant, Immanuel
1781 Kritik der reinen Vernunft
Riga: Johann Friedrich Hartknoch.
Cited according to the pagination of the second edition, 1787.
Italian translation: Critica della ragion pura. Testo tedesco a fronte. Il pensiero occidentale. A cura di Costantino Esposito. Milano: Bompiani, 2004.
English translation: Critique of Pure Reason: 2007, translated by Norman Kemp Smith.
M: Kant
1.1.4
1.1.8
14.2.1
14.3.3
     Kant attempts to establish the limits of pure reason and secure a legitimate range and mode of operation. He turns his attention from the scrutiny of being to the human experience of it, and by establishing the limits of experience, he is able to criticise the claims to knowledge that exceeds them (xvi).
     Kant's enquiry has two sides: 1) the objects of pure understanding and a priori concepts, and 2) the investigation of pure understanding itself - its possibilities, cognitive facilities and subjective aspect.
     All knowledge begins with experience but does not necessarily arise from experience - we receive experience through impressions, and these may be difficult to distinguish from the 'raw material' or the 'thing itself' (pp. 41-42). Kant wants to distinguish between 'a priori' knowledge (also 'pure', strictly universal knowledge, absolutely independent of experience) and 'empirical' knowledge, gained through experience.
     [For the relevance of Kant's Critique to CAR see the entire chapter 15 of CAR and the digital monograph on Kant.] – [Laerke Recht, March 2013]
1785 Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten
1786 Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft 14.5.3
14.5.4
1787 Kritik der reinen Vernunft2
Citations in this website are to the page numbers of the second edition, preceded by the letter B.
14.3.2
14.4.1
14.5.3
14.5.4
1788 Kritik der praktischen Vernunft
Leipzig: Felix Meiner.
English translation: Critique of Practical Reason: 2002, translated by Werner S. Pluhar.
Italian translation: Critica della ragion pratica. Testo tedesco a fronte. Il pensiero occidentale. A cura di V. Mathieu. Milano: Bompiani, 2004.
1.1.4
1.1.8
14.2.1
M: Kant
     Kant's second Critique is an exploration of the faculty of desire. It largely deals with (the possibility of) freedom and the law of morality, seeking to understand their universalizability.
     [For the relevance of Kant's Critique to CAR see the entire chapter 15 of CAR and the digital monograph on Kant.] – [Laerke Recht, May 2013]
1790 Kritik der Urteilskraft
Leipzig: Felix Meiner.
Cited according the pagination of the 2nd and 3rd edition as given in the 5th edition by Karl Vorländer, Leipzig: Felix Meiner, 1922.
English translation: Critique of Judgement: 1986, translated by James Creed Meredith
Italian translation: Critica del giudizio. Testo tedesco a fronte. Il pensiero occidentale. A cura di Massimo Marassi. Milano: Bompiani, 2004.
1.1.4
1.1.8
14.2.1
M: Kant
     In his Third Critique, Kant sets out to investigate the faculty of judgement, which he considers as properly placed between understanding and reason, cognition and desire - essentially the subjects of his first two critiques. Kant seeks to discover if there is an independent a priori principle governing the faculty of judgement (thus making it universal), and if so, what it consists of. This, in particular, leads to Kant's analysis of the aesthetic.
     [For the relevance of Kant's Critique to CAR see the entire chapter 15 of CAR and the digital monograph on Kant.] – [Laerke Recht, May 2013]
1797 Die Metaphysik der Sitte
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Karatani, Kojin
1977 Transcritique: On Kant and Marx
Translated by Sabu Koshu.
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.
14.10.1
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Karlsson, Håkan; Anders Gustafsson
2006 "Among Totem Poles and Clan Power in Tanum, Sweden: An Ethnographic Perspective on Communicative Artifacts of Heritage Management"
in Edgeworth 2006, pp. 137-147.
1.1.5
9.8.1
     With a case study of some sites with rock carvings in Sweden, the authors demonstrate how a dichotomy is created between experts (archaeologists, in this case the heritage management) and the public or laymen. The only communication to the public is through signposts, and these almost function as totem poles, as territorial markers, both geographically and intellectually. Through the signs and the ultimate covering up of the carvings (protected from the public, for the public), the right of interpretation, the right to the past, is delimited to the experts. – [Laerke Recht, October 2014]
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Keesing, Roger M.
1972 "Paradigms Lost: The New Ethnography and the New Linguistics"
in Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 28.4, pp. 299-332.
15.13
17.4
     To what extent do paradigms established in linguistic no longer apply to ethno-science? In a diachronic and analytical order, Keesing diagnoses the convoluted relationship between the two, showing a growing reluctance to integrate the linguistics/grammar paradigms into ethnography, archaeology, culture and so on.
     The paper focuses on three aspects: 1) Ethnoscience and pre-transformational linguistics - the enthusiastic studies that drew parallels between linguistic and cultural grammar undertaken in taxonomic fashion are considered here (see excerpt); 2) The new ethnography and the new linguistics - a growing separation between the two occurred with the appearance of the new linguistics, mostly associated with the influence of Chomsky, recognized widely as the transformational model (Chomsky 1957, 1980). The new linguistics developed heavy a criticism of the older taxonomic model of grammar, attempting to pursue the 'linguistics competence' through speech, behavior and performance. The new ethnography on the other hand, increasingly shifted attention towards the nature of culture and to aspects not necessarily similar to those of linguistic grammar. In particular, Keesing argues that the theory of culture bears an immensely different character not to be negotiated with the structure of language. In an inclusive dimension, culture comprises a far more complex nature compared to that of language. 3) The new cognitive anthropology - this portion is dedicated to Keesing's advocacy of cognition. A quotation from McCulloch (1965: 395-397), p. 317, illustrates this better: "That man, like beasts, lives in a world of relations, rather than in a world of classes, or propositions seems certain."
     According to Keesing, cognition is more than the provisional mapping of the mind. Instead, it offers the potential to describe human being in the form of a cultural grammar. Ethnography is in desperate need of a universal theoretical design able to configure the universal configuration of the theoretical mind. The collection of empirical data or any type of inductive analysis must not play any role at all. Instead, through theoretical premises, culture must be perceived within a wider focus than that of linguistics. This understanding abolishes any kind of parallel relationship between the influence of the two. The involvement of linguistics can serve culture theory only when it conveys a cultural attribute, for instance the ethnography of communication. In this regard, Keesing sees particular developments, like the 'general semantics' which beyond the structural grammar, or formalistic classification prioritize the nature of speech and content expressions. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
1974 "Theories of Culture"
in Annual Review of Anthropology 3, pp. 73-97.
15.3
     The paper offers a narrative overview of theories of culture with analysis of their goals and potential for both archaeological and ethnographic research. Three main streams are discussed: cultures as adaptive systems, ideational theories of culture and cultures as sociocultural systems.
     Keesing goes on to critically analyze each tradition, and favors the ideational/cognitive theory, perceiving culture as an ideational system or alternatively a system of competence (p. 86): "the structure of cultural system is created, shaped and constrained by individual minds and brains. What forms culture take depend on what individual humans can think, imagine and learn, as well as on what collective behaviors shape and sustain viable patterns of life in ecosystem. Cultures must be thinkable and learnable as well as viable." – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Kelly-Buccellati, Marilyn
1977 "Towards the Use of Quantitative Analysis in Mesopotamian Sphragistics"
in Mesopotamia 11, pp. 41-52.
Available online: www.mkb-cv.net
14.6.4
Excerpts
     A detailed early statement about the importance of distributional analysis, based on binary oppositions, as applied to typology, for which see Excerpts. The article develops the theoretical dimension of the distributional system, configured as s tree, and provides an example for a given set of attributes from Mesopotamian glyptics. – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2014]
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King, Barbara J. (ed.)
1999 The Origins of Language: What Nonhuman Primates Can Tell Us
Santa Fe and Oxford: School of American Research Press and James Currey Publishers.
14.11
     The familiar theme of how language came to be is here explored through essays on non-human primate communication. The popular Chomskyan-influenced view that human language is unique and nothing meaningful can be learned from evolutionary perspective is challenged: – [Laerke Recht, September 2016]
     Employing a variety of disciplinary approaches to nonhuman primate communication and cognition, The Origins of Language combines a general overview of language-origins theories with empirical case studies on nonhuman primates, hominids, and humans and examinations of specific processes in language evolution to create a sophisticated theoretical framework that will advance our understanding of language origins. The ten authors explore such issues as the linguistic and behavioral precursors to language in nonhuman primates, the degree to which primate vocal and gestural communication is experience- and interaction-based rather than biologically determined, and how events during ontogeny contribute to the development of language. – [Publisher's blurb]
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Klejn, Leo
1977 "A Panorama of Theoretical Archaeology"
in Current Anthropology 18.1, pp. 1-42.
     This is a concise but inclusive survey of theoretical thought in archaeology. Klejn offers a complete synthesis that relies on traditions, topics, problems that time or practice has proven right or wrong. Very explicitly, it intends to minimize the voice of sceptics regarding the utility of theory in the field, noting that "without theory scientific life is not life at all".
     Indeed, the survey discusses the controversies and clashes of several traditions. Definitely, Klejn sees this as a challenge and notes the difficulty in either reconciling or combining them. A particular dimension is the relationship between the objectivity and partisanship which seems to have characterized theoretical thought in archaeology the most. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
2001 Introduction to Theoretical Archaeology: Meta-Archaeology
in Acta Archaeologica 72, pp. 1-150.
15.14
     The present study represents a condensation of much of the theoretical thinking in archaeology by Leo Klejn of St. Petersburg over the past half century. It has in itself been underway for a decade or two in step with the timid opening, later the fall of the Soviet Union and the rebirth of Russia.
     The volume is the result of the collaboration between the general editor and the author, helped towards the end by enthusiastic assistants, and supported by the European Union (INTAS) as well as by Acta Archaeologica.
     Much of Leo Klejn's work has hitherto only been known sporadically in a Western language and little of it in a comprehensive form. It is hoped that the reader will savour this novel and logically consequent, almost neo-modernist perspective on archaeology, as well as its high spirits. – [Publisher's summary]
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Knappett, Carl; Lambros Malafouris
2008 Material Agency: Towards a Non-Anthropocentric Approach
New York: Springer, pp. xix-256.
     An important collection of articles, for which see here Knappet and Malafouris 2008 Introduction – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
2008 "Material and Non-Human Agency: An Introduction"
in Knappett and Malafouris 2008 Material Agency, pp. ix-xix.
     An insightful overview of the literature, this chapter articulates the distinction between material and human agency (the latter being endowed with intentionality) and stresses the importance to see a symmetrical relationship between the two (in line with Actor-Network-Theory). Importantly, the aim of this volume is not to establish "material" or "nonhuman" agency as some kind of sustainable alternative to the idea of human agency" (p. xvii). The authors stress that archaeology is ideally suited to take a place in this type of analysis, and in fact to "lead the way" and to correct a "woeful under-theorisation" (p.xii) [which indirectly comes close to the goals of the Critique]. The remainder of the introduction presents each chapter stressing the overriding interdisciplinary aim. – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
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Kosso, Peter
1991 "Archaeology: Middle-Range Theory As Hermeneutics"
in American Antiquity 56.4, pp. 621-627.
     This article discusses the similarities between the hermeneutic and the Middle-Range approaches to archaeolgy. Though they are often presented as opposing methodologies, Kosso argues that they are more similar than their proponents would lead one to believe. The similarities in these approaches touch on the "quest for patterns" that Buccellati discusses in 2.5. – [Heidi Dodgen, February 2013]
2001 Knowing the Past: Philosophical Issues of History and Archaeology
Amherst: Humanity Books.
10.8
     How can we know what really happened in the distant past in places like ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Palestine, Greece, and Rome, especially since the evidence is fragmentary and ancient cultures are so different from our own frame of reference? Scholars may examine historical documents and archaeological artifacts, and then make reasonable inferences. But in the final analysis there can be no absolute certainty about events far removed from present reality, and the past must be reconstructed by means of hypotheses that coherently organize all available data. Knowledge claims about the past, and about many areas of science as well, rest on a network of interdependence between theory and evidence, and between interpretation and data.
     In this fascinating study of epistemology, philosopher Peter Kosso argues for a coherence model of epistemic justification. In the first part, the conceptual argument, he proposes a model of knowledge of the past. In the second part he presents three detailed case studies drawn from the work of historians and archaeologists. These studies are used to support and fine-tune the model outlined in the first part. Kosso presents many insights into the limits of knowledge and our ability to know the mental as well as the physical past. Historians, archaeologists, philosophers, and students interested in epistemology will find this accessible work to be of great value. [Publisher's blurb] – [Laerke Recht, March 2017]
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Kramer, Carol
1979 Ethnoarchaeology: Implications of Ethnography for Archaeology
New York: Columbia University Press.
15.4
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Krieger, Alex D.
1944 "Archaeology: The Typological Concept"
in American Antiquity 9.3, pp. 271-288.
3.1
6.3.2
     Among the first publications focused on the classification of artifacts. In the discussion of classification, Krieger became rather influential and his approach on the so-called type-variety (subtype) system gained particular support by other contemporary scholars, including Rouse. It maintains an empirical voice and treats in particular the 'what' and 'how' that define the types and subtypes in the archaeological data. The definition of type has two benefits: 1) it is considered an indispensable element that greatly contributes to the understanding of a cultural unit and its relationships and 2) it serves as an organizational tool under which further examinations are undertaken. Krieger aims to create a standardized scheme of classification divided into four consecutive phases: full description of data, visually determined typologies, classification systems and the true methodological method. The last two receive a greater deal of attention and become pivotal elements of his approach. With the classification system, he points out five theoretical aspects that form a type. Thus, parameters like form or function and especially the so-called genetic relationship (changes over time) and genetic sense, meaning the categorization of data according to the compositional elements, are of prior importance. The typological method defines the components of the type, emphasizing specimens which look as though they had been made with the same or similar structural pattern in mind. An integral division within the type is the subtype which designates various properties of the type. – [Esmeralda Agolli, May 2014]
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Krieger, William Harvey
2006 Can There be a Philosophy of Archaeology? Processual Archaeology and the Philosophy of Science
Lanham: Lexington Books.
15.13
     The author discusses archaeology as a scientific discipline. In this, he sees the questions of archaeological theory and method as fundamentally philosophical questions, and argues for the advantage of communication between archaeology and philosohy (in particular philosophy of science). The importance and possibility of explanation, confirmation and prediction in archaeology are brought to the fore - as opposed to a merely descriptive discipline. – [Laerke Recht, February 2017]
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Kuhn, Thomas S.
1962 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
The University of Chicago Press.
4.1
     This piece may easily be defined as the most unique and influential voice in the sphere of the history of science. Kuhn offers an inspirational overview of the revolution of science and its historical course over the many centuries of human activity. Clearly it maintains a relative emphasis, expressing a notable disagreement with the formalist views and approaches to science. Kuhn argues for a scientific enterprise (facts, laws, and theory) that relies heavily on a great variety of factors, including time context, external constraints, skill, attention, interest of the scientist and so on. The discussion on science breaks open the steady and mythical standpoints and focuses on a rational understanding of science and its transformation over time. Revolution, normal science and paradigm are the key words of the volume.
     Kuhn perceives the development of normal science within the creation, consistence, transformation and longevity of the paradigm. The main conceptual tools of normal science (including law, theory, application and instrumentation) comprise the spine of a scientific formulation, and paradigm is the theoretical synthesis of the comprising facts. Seen from a relativist perspective over time, the so-called paradigms inevitably became subject of reconsideration. It is during this process that their status quo changes by being either modified or entirely disputed; a process widely recognized as the 'paradigm shift'. Progress in normal science occurs exclusively within this process of recirculation. It is due to such understanding that a scientist must perceive the transformation as a normal and unavoidable process of his work. – [Esmeralda Agolli, July 2014]
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Lake, Mark
2012 "Open Archaeology"
in World Archaeology 44.4, pp. 471-478.
9.7
     Lake introduces a whole issue of World Archaeology dedicated to the subject of open data and its impact and implications for archaeology. This includes what he aptly calls a 'democratisation' of the production and consumption of information. The term 'open' is very specifically defined as "A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse and redistribute it - subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike" (p. 471). This can include not only archaeological data, but also software, publications and audio-visual material. An important distinction most relevant to the case of the Urkesh Global Record is the one between making a written report 'open' (e.g. an excavation report or journal paper) and making the 'raw' data accessible.
     Some of the issues discussed here and in the papers of the volumes are willingness to share, levels of expertise, and standards and sustainability.
     See also Huggett 2012; Beck & Neylon 2012; Ducke 2012; Jeffrey 2012. – [Laerke Recht, July 2016]
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Lancaster, F.W.
2003 Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice
3rd edition. Campaign, IL: University of Illinois
3.1
     Introductory work on indexing, categorisation and abstracting, especially in library studies. Particularly of interest here are the comments on the attention needed for indexing of items other than traditional books or articles, such as other media, including films or web sites and electronic documents. On p. 25 is a quotation of relevance to how we approach data and evaluate data on the internet, as opposed to for example a book, "The first step in indexing a Web site is to get a feel for the amount and type of material to be indexed. You can hold the page proofs of a book in one hand and flick through them. You can't do this with the Web, so you have to systematically examine the site, taking note of the sort of information, the amount of detail, and the quality of the navigation links. Check the size of files in megabytes. Ask the Webmaster to provide as much information as possible about the files, including the number of authors who have contributed Web pages. The more authors, the more variation you can expect, and the more sampling you should do." (quoting Browne 2001). – [Laerke Recht, July 2013]
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Lascar, Fabrice
1994 "Le retard de l'archéologue: L'interprétation historienne face à l'oeuvre de Michel Foucault"
in European Review of History 1, pp. 43-54.
     A critical assessment of Foucault's work in his effort to "identify the subterranean code from which derive the (historian's) discursive statements": what happens is that he is unable to "include within his perspective (what amounts to) a blind spot which he continues nevertheless to presuppose" (p. 47). His "archaeological" effort aims at identifying the breaking points in tradition rather than the continuities, but while seeking to do that, he is in fact missing out on the long standing effort of the historian to discern the mental template of the ancients (p. 48, here Lascar quotes Paul Valéry who speaks of "la machine mentale possible ou probable de ces gens-là" (Cahiers, La Plüiade, Vol. 2). The "archaeological project aiming for the exhumation of presuppositions" (p. 49) leads to the admission of an inevitable "delay of (Foucault) the archaeologist" because "the method reaches its goals by forgetting its own conditions of what was possible, thus exposing itself to the skepticism which it had itself aroused" (pp. 51-53) – [Giorgio Buccellati, March 2014]
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Layton, Robert; Peter G. Stone; Julian Thomas (eds.)
2001 Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property
One World Archaeology 41.
London and New York: Routledge.
8.12
     The purpose of the book is to investigate why historical artifacts and monuments are sometimes deliberately destroyed, and under what conditions they are, instead, carefully preserved. It collects papers presented on the occasion of the third World Archaeological Congress, initially due to meet in New Delhi in 1994 but that due to some controversies connected to the destruction of a mosque in the north Indian town of Ayodhya was postponed and took place on the island of Brac (Croatia) from 3-7 May 1998.
     The papers gathered in this publication inevitably reflect the events, problems and debates which lay behind the organization of the Congress: they all highlight, from different perspectives, the links between archaeology, history, conservation and political strategies. Archaeology is defined as "a scientific discipline and a socio-political enterpise" (p. 43): many practical examples of this are provided, with a special focus on what happens in developing countries.
     The role of archaeology and the use of history for the emergence of modern feelings of belonging to a state are debated in this book, with the connected questions concerning the relationship between archaeologists, conservators and stakeholder communities and on the possible methods of communication between the academic world and other people. Even though these pages present only practical examples and data, connected to specific cities or single monuments in various countries of the world, it is extremely interesting since it provides an overview of different approaches to conservation. Ultimately, the reader is prompted to exhaminate the consequences of archaeology on societies, and on the specific position of the specialists operating in conservation as for the circulation and the awareness of historical knowledge. – [Stefania Ermidoro, June 2014]
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Leaman, O.
2006 "Who Guards the Guardians?"
in C. Scarre & G. Scarre (eds.), The Ethics of Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, pp. 32-45.
     Leaman discusses the ethics of collecting, in particular in museums. His examples come from confiscated art in Nazi Germany, as well as Native American artifacts displayed in museums. His primary argument compares how society treats children and compares them to artifacts, looking at responsibility as well as the obligation of the state to intervene in some situations. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Lévi-Strauss, Claude
1945 "L'analyse structurale en linguistique et en anthropologie"
in Word. Journal of the Linguistic Circle of New York 1, pp. 1-21.
Cited according to the reprint in Lévi-Strauss 1958 Anthropologie structurale, pp. 37-62.
11.4.3
14.10.1
     An important article that spells out the significance of structural linguistics for the author's anthropological research (see especially pp. 37 and 62). The three major characteristics of structural analysis (discussed in CAR Chapter 15) are discussed, albeit with different terms.
     (1) Relationality is at the core of the concept of structure (as it will remain throughout L.-S.' career): he speaks of a "phonetic revolution" (p. 41) and identifies "elementary" forms in ways that differ substantially in concept from the otherwise similar approach of Radcliffe-Brown (pp. 60-62).
     (2) Inclusivity is addressed with reference to the systematic universalism of structural analysis (vs. atomism, pp. 41), and to a "table" ("tableau") seen as the description of the whole (p. 44-46). Particularly significant in this respect is the discussion on. pp. 56f. concerning the kinship system as a unitary whole. In an indirect way, there is also an allusion to the significance of statements of non-occurrence (7.10 and 13.8).
     (3) Referentiality emerges from the correlations between the system of "appellation" and the system of "attitudes" (p. 45). – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
1949 Les structures élémentaires de la parenté
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
1952 "La Notion de Structure en Ethnologie"
in A.L. Kroeber (ed.), Anthropology Today. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1953), pp. 524-553.
Delivered in English at a Wenner-Gren Symposium in 1952.
Cited according to the revised French translation published in 1958, Anthropologie structurale, pp. 303-351, with a "Postface" on pp. 353-375.
14.10.1
1955 "The Structural Study of Myth"
in Journal of American Folklore 78, pp. 428-444.
Cited according to the revised French translation published as "La structure des mythes,"
in Lévi-Strauss 1958 Anthropologie structurale, pp. 227-255.
14.4.3
14.5.1
14.10.1
     Furhter developing the methodological reflection that had informed the study of kinship terms, L.-S. argues for an analogous methodology applicable to myth. It is like a programmatic study for the major work that will develop some ten years later with the volumes in the series Mythologiques. Here I will stress especially the importance attributed to the aspect of totality, as on pp. 242f and 250 where he stresses the need for a global or universal approach, where not a single variant of a myth is left out of consideration (15.5.1 and 15.6). Also significant is the reference to "paquets de relations" (pp. 234, 237), and to a comprehensive "tableau" that becomes sufficiently complex to acquire a three-dimensional reality (pp. 241, 253).
     It is intersting to note how the complexity of the formal representation of these data leads him to speak (p. 253) of (physically) enormous card cabinets, and to mention the potential use of punched cards and "mecanography." [It is also interesting to note that L.-S. ignores the work of Cassirer, who was in New York (at Columbia) at exactly the same time as L.-S. As noted by Caws 1997 Structuralism, p. 43, L.-S., in a personal communication, indicated that he had missed a lecture by Cassirer at the Linguistic Circle in New York (Cassirer 1945 Linguistics), and that he became acquainted with his work only much later.]. – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
     Lévi-Strauss' method in the study of myth is interesting, because he believes in the possibility of finding patterns in the difficult land of mythic thought. In his opinion a myth is a linguistic expression and it has to be studied in the same way as language. However, unlike a normal linguistic expression, a myth has more complex characteristics (mythems), which have to be located on the level of sentences, the highest level of a linguistic expression. For this reason, Lévi-Strauss suggests the translation of the succession of mythical events into sentences as short as possible. In this way, he obtains some larger constitutive units that are in relation to each other [This process is comparable with Propp's method, where he simplifies the complex structure of folktale into some constitutive elements and their relationship]. He finds that only in their combination do the main constitutive elements acquire meaning. For this reason, a more important and more valuable variant does not exist, because all the variants contribute the constitutive elements and their combination.
     [However, although this method is interesting because it implies a logic in mythic thought, it is possible to see some weaknesses. First, it is not so simple to translate the segments of a myth into sentences that everyone can subscribe to for certain. In fact, it is uncertain, for example, that the social problem of autochthony arises from the myth of Oedipus, a meaning closer to the mentality and type of study of LéviStrauss. Therefore, it seems difficult to not divide the content of myths into "a priori" sections.
     Secondly, there is a shortcoming in the definition of myth and of literature. The literature draws its content from myths, but it develops this content in a logical and more monitored way, sometimes also changing the plot. Is it really possible to take these new myths as variants?
     Thirdly, Lévi-Strauss' method, as the linguistic structural method, suggests a binary approach to reality. But are we sure that our thought works only in a binary way, with oppositions that, for example, a myth tries to solve or just to express?
     From an archaeological point of view, if a structural method is followed, it may be subjected to similar objections: Whence does an archeologist try his grammar? Is it an "a priori" work or is it a matter of facts? How is it possible to face the problems of intention or lack thereof in the emplacement and deposition? When we study something that comes from the human world, is a method based on binary oppositions really a good one? – [Beatrice Paolucci, October 2014]
1956 "Structure et Dialectique"
in Morris Halle (ed.), For Roman Jakobson: Essays on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 11 October 1956.
Cited according to the reprint in Lévi-Strauss1958 Anthropologie structurale, pp. 227-255.
1958 Anthropologie Structurale
Paris: Plon.
     A series of papers published between 1945 and 1956: they embody the author's programmatic reflection about the relevance of structure and of linguistics. The papers that are more pertinent for our interest are treated separately in this bibliography, and entered according to the date of their first publication. – [Giorgio Buccellati, January 2014]
1960 "Structure and Form: Reflections on a Work by Vladimir Propp"
in Structural Anthropology 2, pp. 115-145.
14.7.5
15.11.7
     In this article Lévi-Strauss explains, analyzes and criticizes the main points of Propp 1958. He appreciates the method of Propp, because he anticipated structuralism, a method that the French anthropologist also uses. At the same time, Lévi-Strauss thinks that some of Propp's conclusions, born from a typical formal approach, are incomplete, because they separate form from content. Thanks to Propp, it is possible to recognize the main characteristics of a folktale, but his contribution does not go further: "Before formalism, we were certainly unaware of what these tales had in common. Since formalism, we have been deprived of any means of understanding how they differ" (p. 133), 14.7.5.
     For this reason, Lévi-Strauss says, after the form's investigation, Propp returned to comparative analysis. However, not even this method explains the essence of the stories, myths or folktales, because, although the content could change, it follows some rules, and these rules have to be found. The choice of a variant, even the most ancient, does not allow us to get to the real meaning of myths or folktales. However, it is necessary to collect all the variants and identify the main constitutive elements, that Lévi-Strauss calls mythemes. For this reason, Lévi-Strauss thinks that form and content have to be examined using the same method: "form and content are of the same nature, susceptible to the same analysis" (p. 131). He proposes to work on the fairytale in the same way that he works on the American myths, where he searches for binary and ternary oppositions provided with meaning.
     [Lévi-Strauss' critique is interesting also for the study of broken traditions through archaeological analysis. In fact, even a careful study of form remains unproductive, if there is no attempt at interpreting it: also in archeology there is always the temptation of dividing meaning from signifier, because it seems impossible to use the same methods to study both of them. The possibility of studying at the same time signifier and meaning, lexicon and syntax, in myth, an apparent uncertain field, suggests that it is possible to follow the same method in the study of ancient cultures.] – [Beatrice Paolucci, October 2014]
1964 Le cru et le cuit
Mythologiques 1
Paris: Plon.
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Levin, Michael
1976 "On the Ascription of Functions to Objects, with Special Reference to Inference in Archaeology"
in Philosophy of the Social Sciences 6, pp. 227-234.
15.13
     The paper infers the epistemology of function in archaeological data, alternatively called the "alertness principle". The approach is rather heavily disputed by Salmon (1982, Chapter 4, pp. 70-71). Initially, it deals with basic questions like: how and why did some object come into existence? How do we know what they were for? and so on. Indeed, Levin recognizes the difficulty of the backward inference that archaeological data imposes on this kind of queries. However, when it comes to function, the paper vaguely evokes a multitask investigation that involves not only the finding of the immediate reason why an object is what it is but also the circumstance in which it is made and used and the social and psychological state of the agent (A) behind it. Due to such complexity, it is imperative to simultaneously apply questions to function (F), related to the object (O) properties and the agent (A) of the making and usage. As Merrilee claims, this emphasis does not fully address the complexity of function in the archaeological record, but rather puts the entire focus into a simplistic agenda that aims to predict the unpredictable through the scheme of F, O and A. – [Esmeralda Agolli, June 2014]
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Lieberman, Philip
2002 Human Language and Our Reptilian Brain: The Subcortical Bases of Speech, Syntax, and Thought
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
14.11
     In his theory of human language, Lieberman looks at the neural evolutionary basis of language in the human brain. He argues that language is not modular or compartmentalised as believed by some linguists (e.g. Chomsky), and that it is a learned skill rather than an instinct. Language is connected with cognition, motor control and emotion, among other things, and occur in the same areas of the brain. The Functional Neural System is distributed throughout the brain, "Current neurobehavioral data demonstrate both the plastic and activity-dependent nature of the specific knowledge represented in cortical structures and the possibility that alternate neuroanatomical structures are enlisted for language after brain damage" (p. 5). – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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Livingston, Paisley
2005 Art and Intention: A Philosophical Study
Oxford: Clarendon Press.
15.11.3
     Livingston here explores the relationship between a work of art, the artist and the artist's intentions. The attitude towards intention (itself a complex concept defined in a range of ways) has implications for interpretation. Although the discussion is about art, it is interesting more broadly for all craftsmanship in archaeology. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Longacre, W.A.
1964 "Archaeology as Anthropology: a Case Study"
in Science (New Series) 144 (3625), pp. 1454-1455.
     Longacre's study of the Carter Ranch Site combines archaeological data with ethnological data and statistics (regression analysis) to posit patterns of interaction at the site. Based on assumptions which he clearly states, the effect of a matrilineal society can be seen in ceramic distribution as well as other functional areas of the site and the distribution of goods among the tombs present in the adjacent cemeteries. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
1966 "Changing Patterns of Social Integration A Prehistoric Example from the American Southwest"
in American Anthropologist (New Series) 68.1, pp. 94-102.
     Longacre asks: "how can we recognize patterns of social integration and processes of change archaeologically?" (95) On the basis of pollen evidence, it seems clear that a major climate change took place, and that the societies needed to adapt to this new situation. Archaeological evidence suggests that smaller communities merged into larger ones, and institutions arose or were modified to provide social cohesion for these larger communities (Great Kivas) which counterbalanced regular kinship ties, strengthening the larger community. The evidence for this adaptation lies in the distribution of finds as well as the number and distribution of dwellings at the sites and at a regional level. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Loprieno, Antonio
1988 Topos und Mimesis. Zum Ausländer in der ägyptischen Literatur
Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
16.6.1
17.4
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Lucas, Gavin
2001 "Destruction and the Rhetoric of Excavation"
in Norwegian Archaeological Review 34.1, pp. 35-46.
2.3
2.6.3
4.1
8.1
9.1
17.3
Excerpts
Th: excavation
     Traditional rhetoric famously understands excavation as destruction, and places preservation as its opposite. Excavation is seen as a necessary destructive act in order to understand its subject, and in fact in some instances, the policy is that excavation is a 'last' choice only taken if preservation of the remains is not possible. Conservation and preservation stems from a guilt of what has been lost and a desire to reduce decay.
     Lucas argues that the attitude expressed by this rhetoric is detrimental to archaeological practice itself, and in particular to the relationship between research and contract archaeology. Rather than call excavation desctruction, we should see it as 'displacement', because nothing is actually destroyed in the sense of ceasing to exist. The material, soil and so on are displaced, and what is 'destroyed' are what we call the archaeological contexts. When excavating, we transform a site, something which is still unrepeatable and unique in each instance, but it is also bringing something new into the world, in the sense that we create it. In excavation and preservation, we do not, cannot, return to the thing as it was; we always create something new. The act of excavating is thus not the strict subject-object divide often found in archaeological discourse, "we constitute the archaeological remains through our engagement with them and the tools we use in that engagement" (p. 38).
     Excavation is furthermore placed in opposition to the records we produce from it; what Lucas calls the 'archive'. Excavation is negative and marginalised, while recording is positive and attributed more importance. At the same time, the archive is assumed to be a 'copy', a representation of the site, with the site itself being the 'original'. Lucas prefers to call the archive a 'substitute', where the primary difference to excavation is that it is possible to return to archive over and over again; a potential re-excavation. The danger of the archive is the tendency towards standardisation. Although standardisation is an enormous advantage in terms of comparing sites and managing large amounts of data, it runs the risk of homogenising archaeological contexts - of making pits where there might not have been any. The simplification or erasure of detail that may take place in order to fit features etc into the parametres of the archive "remind us that the archive is a process, not a thing, that what we record is an open process" (p. 47). – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
2001 Critical Approaches to Fieldwork: Contemporary and Historical Archaeological Practice
London and New York: Routledge.
2.1
2.3
2.8
4.2
5.1
8.1
8.2
Excerpts
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     We are taken through the history of archaeology in terms of its theory and practice. Special emphasis is given to how broader ideas in archaeology and elsewhere influence field methods and the corresponding 'archaeological record' in the form of fieldnotes, reports and final publications. The assumption is that archaeology has always been progressive (in the sense that we continuously do a better job than previously), both in theory and in practice, but Lucas demonstrates that this is not necessarily so, and that how we excavate and report our excavations are highly informed by current ideas of what is important. Historically, we thus move from a focus on artefacts themselves through artefact assemblages to culture, behaviour and actions/events. The result of each of these types of foci can be seen in the records we produce; in the way the material is presented in text and images and the structure of presentation.
     It is inaccurate to equate archaeology with excavation - historically, archaeology did not start in the field, but was rather characterised by an occupation with typology and classification, and with strong links or influences by art history and geology. The material rarely came from controlled excavations but from museums and private collections. Museums likewise structured their collections along these lines of classification. A shift then happened, where the focus went from typologies towards cultures. A corresponding shift took place as a response in field methods, with the beginnings of stratigraphic excavations, with important contributions from Pitt Rivers, Wheeler, Kenyon and of course Harris. As a result of wider concerns, we also see a marked increase in archaeological specialists - ceramicists, zooarchaeologists, area and period specialists, botanists and so on. The specialist reports become a standard part of the field report, and the structure of the field report itself is set and remains largely unchanged till today. The specialist reports have the effect of creating a disjunct between material and site/context, even if later integrated into final interpretation.
     Objects came to be seen as representations of human ideas and beliefs, and as one of the latest trends, as representations of human actions and events. – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
2005 The Archaeology of Time
London and New York: Routledge.
2.4.2
2.7.3
Excerpts
Th: stratigraphy
     Lucas in this book takes up the important issue of time in archaeological discourse. The concept of time is of course at the very core of archaeology, dependent is it is on creating chronologies and sequences, and placing the material culture in its correct spatial as well as chronological context. However, this very centrality means that we take it for granted and therefore do not properly consider the theoretical background of time and the consequences of how we understand it.
     Necessary as chronology is, interpretation tends to become limited by its frames, seeing the past as a uniform, linear sequence. In this, ideas of change and continuity are used as dichotomous explanatory methods. Chronology must not be abandoned, but an awareness of the use of the conceept of time should move beyond the simplified linear understanding to include an acknowledgement of the importance of punctuality, circularity, pace and flow.
     As a discipline, archaeology is concerned with linking the past to the present, but ends up struggling with the duality of the two in this endeavour. In excavating, we often value the 'finest' or most complete objects or structures the highest - and these are also the ones usually put on display in museums or fenced in at the site itself. This process does not represent the actuality of finds (the great mass of pottery sherds is 'hidden away', even though this material is often what is in fact used to bring out broader conclusions), and has the effect opposite of what is intended: the museum display and the site fence only serves to underline the hiatus between the present and those who created them - the past. We objectify the past and its material, thereby creating an otherness that means we remain essentially alienated.
     Further, archaeology's reconstitution of the past through reconstruction, preservation and conservation presents a specific narrative that prioritises things 'as they were', not as we discover them. However subtle, this constitutes a manipulation of the past and may ignore competing narratives, both modern and ancient. – [Laerke Recht, July 2014]
2008 "Time and the Archaeological Event"
in Cambridge Archaeological Journal 18.1, pp. 59-65.
2.1
3.3
Th: stratigraphy
     In this paper, Lucas again discusses the issue of time in archaeology. Specifically, he problematises the simultaneous application of different time scales, and the way in which these relate to each other. For example, how do small-scale and large-scale processes relate to each other? Rather than the usual scalar models, Lucas advocates a 'flattening' of the scale, using stratigraphy as an analogy.
     He also notes a problem with the frequently used term 'event' in archaeology, which can mean many different things and stand for different lengths of time. Archaeological events are very different from everyday or sociological events as well. Lucas suggests a use of the term in archaeology that relies on objects, but objects as representing organisation, "We must not conflate surviving elements of an event with the material residuality of an event itself. In the one case, we are talking simply about things; in the other, organization of things. This is what I meant by suggesting that the concept of residuality was too narrow; we tend to equate it with survival of things rather than the survival of material organization. If we think about the archaeological record in terms of the residue of events, we must consider events as material assemblages of people and objects that persist for shorter or greater duration. It is the residue of this organization that is being sought, not simply the elements or objects which were part of it. In this sense, our concepts of context or assemblage come much closer than individual objects to characterizing the material residue of an event. The assemblage, not individual objects, is therefore what constitutes the residue of past events, if by assemblage we understand a set of material relations or organization evident in the archaeological record." (p. 62)
     These 'events' as described by Lucas can be characterised according to their degree of reversibility or irreversibility. This refers to how easily an assemblage is changed, and changed in such a way as to leave little residue of previous states. As examples, Lucas refers to a book collection as an assemblage of being highly reversible, while a traffic system is highly irreversible. Generally speaking, archaeological assemblages tend to have a high level of irreversibility. This has both advantages and disadvantages, depending on the kinds of questions you are asking and time scale you attempt to apply. – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
2010 "Triangulating Absence: Exploring the Fault Lines between Archaeology and Anthropology"
in Duncan Garrow & Thomas Yarrow (eds.), Archaeology and Anthropology: Understanding Similarity, Exploring Difference.
Oxbow Books, pp. 28-39.
2.1
2.2
2.2.3
2.4.2
     With this paper, Lucas addresses the often-discussed topic of the relationship between archaeology and anthropology/ethnography. He explores differences and similarities noted by others and the extent to which they apply to or have practical relevance for the two disciplines. He believes that "similarities between the subjects have been forged largely in the context of abstract, over-arching perspectives" (p. 29).
     Essentially, Lucas defines the difference between ethnography and archaeology as one of absence: "The absent subject referred to the missing people in archaeology and how conventionally, archaeology tries to get at the 'Indian behind the artefact'. The absent event refers to the fact that archaeologists do not observe change or things happening in time, they have to infer it - infer events from material residues of events, infer time from space. Finally, the absent present refers to the fact that the archaeologist is only partially a contemporary of the object of her study - that in fact, this object, as a residue, has a split temporality which entails an absent present, we conventionally call 'the past'. This absence, which lies at the heart of archaeology, is in a way what will always separate it from ethnography." (p. 37) – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
2012 Understanding the Archaeological Record
Cambridge University Press.
4.2
8.2
Th: stratigraphy
     In this little book about the "archaeological record", Lucas tackles the problem of the significant gap between theory and practice in archaeology. In the process, he provides an excellent history of archaeology and how theory has shaped archaeology (this is most intentional, since he believes a kind of amnesia is current in academia, where work of a certain age is consciously or unconsciously ignored or forgotten). This includes discussion of stratigraphy, formation theory, excavation, broken tradition and much more. The discussion on the various meanings of the concept of "the archaeological record" is itself also very interesting and highlights a number of paradoxes in archaeology (including the idea of excavation as destruction and the archive/report as the stand in - Baudrillard would say simulacrum - for what was). – [Laerke Recht, March 2017]
2013 "Afterword: Archaeology and the Science of New Objects"
in Benjamin Alberti et al (eds.), Archaeology After Interpretation: Returning Materials to Archaeological Theory.
Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press, pp. 369-380.
6.4.1
     This paper discusses the relationship between archaeology, objects and new knowledge. In archaeology, we mostly discover new objects, not so much new knowledge. The current common triangulation of what archaeologists focus on is between objects, people and systems. However, Lucas contests that there is still inequality between them, with objects being devalued or only having value in virtue of their relation to people and systems. This is despite recent trends to attach agency to things.
     Lucas suggests that the 'new' thing that archaeology might be able to present can be found in the concept of assemblages. That is, if an assemblage is seen as encompassing humans and objects. An assemblage that is more than a conjunction of its parts, starting to act like an indenpendent entity. Such an assemblage can usually be characterised as having both an inside and an outside. A specific house with all its contents and parts is used as an example. – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
2015 "Archaeology and Contemporaneity"
in Archaeological Dialogues 22.1, pp. 1-15.
2.4.2
3.3
     Developing his ideas about time in archaeology, Lucas here provides an interesting discussion about the concept of contemporaneity in archaeology. Looking at two aspects of contemporaneity as used in archaeology, Lucas argues for a view of time that is not strictly linear and placed within a three-tense system (before-contemporary-after). Contemporaneity is a central part of dating and chronology in archaeology, and connected with the ideas of synchronism and anachronism. A more dynamic system that focusses on the relation between objects, rather than tie them individually to units of time, and through this to each other, offers an improved view of the archaeological record. Thus, we can for example recognise different lengths of use of objects and that they may have been only partly used at the same time.
     The second type of contemporaneity (or lack of such) is in the way the archaeological record is understood as contemporary, yet the past is removed from the present. The two are seen as anachronistic. Lucas introduces the concept of 'consociality' as an alternative (borrowed from Schutz), where contemporaneity is a matter of degree. This way, "the focus remains on things themselves and their persistence" (p. 13). – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Lyman Lee, R.; Michael J. O'Brien
1998 "The Goals of Evolutionary Archaeology: History of Explanation"
in Current Anthropology 39.5, pp. 615-652.
15.6
     The paper deals with the ramifications of evolutionary theory in archaeology, taking a historical overview. It uses a pasive voice lacking in originality and predictability. Lyman and O'Brien have collected valuable contributions on the enterprise, combining the work of evolutionary anthropologists (e.g. Boyd and Richerson, Spencer, Mayr) with that of archaeologists choosing to apply evolutionary theory (e.g. Krieger, Dunnell, Kroeber, Steward, Bettinger). In particular, they form a thematic discussion based on salient issues of cultural evolution like innovation, replication, intent, transmission, causation, natural selection and drift. Each theme deals with their implications and understanding in archaeological data.
     Lyman and O'Brien promote the application of behavioral archaeology, which given their conceptual and theoretical configuration offers the potential to perceive human behavior and artifacts through the lense of historical change. According to them, evolutionary theory in itself maintains the premise of directional change, an aspect not universally applied to culture or human behavior. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
1999 "Americanist Stratigraphic Excavation and the Measurement of Cultural Change"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 6.1, pp. 55-108.
2.3
15.10.5
     Confirmational rather than creational! This is the definition Lyman and O'Brien give of every discussion of stratigraphy and cultural change at the turn of the last century (1895-1915). In a vein similar to that of Browman & Givens 1996, a heavy criticism is aimed at the particularistic conceptualization of stratigraphic excavation, viewed solely under the umbrella of cultural change, continuity and chronology. Lyman and O'Brien deal particularly with the notable works of Nelson, Krober, Flinders, Wissler, and Spier on the matter. They especially prefer those seminal efforts that associate and stratigraphic units and artifacts with frequency, phyletic and statistical seriation. This brought an innovative atmosphere that left beyond the simplistic studies of synchronic variation. Also, the developments of the two excavation techniques 'bread-loaf' and 'pure onion peel' to some degree helped establish systematic excavation techniques in the process of data recording and collection.
     Even here serious issues with the terminology are obvious. In any case, if need arises to point out some positive efforts of the era, the development of systematic excavation techniques may be amongst the most important achievements. This is part of the reason why even to this day lovers of this era mythically recognize it as "the stratigraphic revolution".
     However, while digging deep down into the conceptual framework of this approach, a significant lack of attention to various queries of the social, economic, political and religious character is clearly noticed. During this era, the American archaeologists were exclusively preoccupied with the evolutionary course of cultural change, and forced it into a unilinear scheme comprised of three piers: savagery-barbarian-civilization. Regardless of the introduction of the new models of stratigraphic excavation, no serious attention was given to their pure content. Moreover, they were only used to artificially infer and confirm the big queries of cultural change. According to Lyman and O'Brien, due to such an agenda, this tradition must be neglected. – [Esmeralda Agolli, July 2014]
2006 Measuring Time with Artifacts: A History of Methods in American Archaeology
Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.
Th: stratigraphy
     This book collects earlier essays by Lyman and O'Brien in an edited format which presents a history of archaeology in North America through various 'chronometers' (ways of measuring time). In the process, many crucial archaeological concepts are discussed and a good overview of the authors' overall approach is gained. The emphasis on seriation (one way of measuring time using artefacts) is evident and the discussion of continuous and discontinuous time reappears. – [Laerke Recht, February 2017]
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Lyman, R. Lee
2007 "Archaeology's Quest for a Seat at the High Table of Anthropology"
in Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26.2, pp. 133-149.
2.1
     In North America, archaeology and anthropology have been closely connected since the beginning of the disciplines. Archaeology was - and to a large extent still is - a sub-discipline of anthropology, and today is often still studied within anthropology departments rather than separate archaeology ones. The dependency of archaeology on anthropology is especially due to the status of archaeological discoveries in earlier times, where the history seemed quite shallow and with living descendents, meaning that archaeology were seen as offering or adding little to current knowledge. Lyman provides a historical account of the relationship, and how archaeology has progressed from being a 'servant' of anthropology to being able to contribute its own theories and methodologies (i.e. gaining what he calls a seat at the high table). Ultimately, however, Lyman does not separate the two fields, and archaeology appears to remain subordinate to anthropology (it may be able to gain a seat at anthropology's high table, but there is never a mention of archaeology gaining its own 'high table'). [In Europe, the situation is different because historically, archaeology did not arise from anthropology]. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
2012 "A Historical Sketch on the Concepts of Archaeological Association, Context, and Provenience"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 19.2, pp. 207-240.
5.2.1
     In a historical survey of introductory archaeology textbooks (1904-2010), Lyman shows how the concepts of association, context and provenience have always been central to archaeology and stratigraphic excavation - even if those precise terms were not used. Provenience is "the physical location of an artifact in four-dimensional space" (p. 212), and is the only one of the three which is empirical, while the others are inferential and relational [note that outside North America, the terms provenance and provenience are usually reversed in meaning]. Association is understood as two or more artifacts deposited at the same and and used at the same time, and this can vary in degree. Context includes provenience and associations, and depending on degree, can also include geology, stratigraphic position and even broader cultural and geographical location. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Mackay, Richard
2006 "Whose Archaeology? Social Considerations in Archaeological Research Design"
in Agnew & Bridgland 2006, pp. 131-135.
10.7
     The author illustrates, with many practical examples taken from personal experiences or from other articles included in the same volume, how the role of "active stakeholders communities" or, as he also calls them, "culture bearers" is the core of a successful management that responds to the ultimate significance and goals of the discipline. The article is thus particularly interesting in the light of a comparison with paragraph 10.7 of CAR which, however, refers to different categories of stakeholders - "proximate" and "remote". [Not only the local communities or the state organizations have an interest in preserving and promoting the archeological site, but also all those people who gravitate towards it for any reason, as archaeologists and tourists. For this last category, the definition of "remote stakeholder" is suggested.]
     Mackay raises a few basic questions with the purpose of pinpointing the relationship between archaeology and local history and traditions: "Does archaeological investigation and analysis enrich the community? Is it a public good? Is there not a real danger that (...) archaeology can become introspective, derivative, and little more than selfserving, rather than provide a wider public or community benefit?" (p. 132) and also: "Perhaps the question is not what do we want to know, but what do they want to know? In other words, how do we connect with an eager, interested, and often enthusiastic wider community?" (p. 133) – [Stefania Ermidoro, January 2014]
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Madella, Marco; Bernardo Rondelli; Carla Lancelotti; Andrea Balbo; Debora Zurro; Xavi Rubio Campillo; Sebastian Stride
2014 "Introduction to Simulating the Past"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 21.2, pp. 251-257.
8.5
10.5
     Introduction to a volume of Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory devoted to modelling and simulation in archaeology. Simulation and models are not only pleasing visual aids, but can also be "(1) a technique to investigate the dynamics of a system; (2) a heuristic tool to develop hypotheses and theories; (3) a pedagogical tool to understand a process and to divulge its understanding and finally (4) an experimental tool to produce new scenarios." (p. 252) – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Marassi, Massimo
1998 Gadamer e l'ermeneutica contemporanea
Milano: Colonna Edizioni.
14.3.2
16.6
     This book is divided into three sections. At the beginning Marassi, after an introduction regarding hermeneutics, presents the development of the hermeneutical issue through Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger, and he comes to Gadamer, who in his book Truth and Method aims to establish if the truth belongs only to the investigation of scientific methodology or whether there is an experience of truth that goes beyond that field (p. 26). Marassi then reflects on Gadamer's hermeneutics, based on an analysis of selected passages from Truth and Method, and in the concluding section he examines the debate on Gadamer and the trends of contemporary hermeneutics.
     A crucial hermeneutical issue dealt with in the book is to establish if criteria and rules of the critical analysis are implicit to the message itself or rather completely independent of the text. Marassi suggests that the rules of interpretation are plausible, inter-subjective and controllable (p. 12). However, according to Gadamer, information and rules are supported by a necessary reciprocal relation, but philosophy, art and history have a peculiar truthful content that no methodology can grasp and that brings out the limits of scientific analysis (pp. 32-34). The hermeneutical consciousness is aware that it cannot be joined to the thing in the obvious and indisputable way of an uninterrupted survival of a tradition (p. 41). [This is the gap that Buccellati aims to fill by the development of his hermeneutics of broken traditions, distinguishing two hermeneutic levels: invention and critique - CAR 16.6]
     According to Hegel and Gadamer, the hermeneutical method cannot be a reconstruction but instead has to be an integration. In fact, it is impossible to restore life to fruits by returning them to the tree from which they were detached; the interpreter must integrate the past with the present in which he lives (p. 43). Betti criticizes this hermeneutical school, begun by Heidegger and culminated with Gadamer, for neglecting the objectivity of interpretation. According to him, the interpretation concerns the objectifications of the spirit that he calls "representative forms" and relies on the autonomy and the totality of the object and the actuality and adequation of the understanding (p. 93). [The notion of bracketing developed by Buccellati - CAR 15.3.2 - clarify what Hegel and Gadamer call "the integration" presupposes a special type of correlation; his reading of Kant let Buccellati theorize that knowledge requires a "transcendental reflection" that links directly the empirical perception and the a priori form, i.e. prefigured concepts.] – [Pia De Simone, February 2014]
2004 "I Dialoghi del sapere: Schleiermacher traduttore di Platone"
in A. Lavieri (ed.), La traduzione fra filosofia e letteratura. La traduction entre philosophie et littérature.
Torino-Paris: L'Harmattan, pp. 112-141.
     In this article Marassi, points out that the translations of Plato done by Schleiermacher are not simple transpositions of the original texts into another language, but rather they are the translation of Plato's philosophy into another philosophy (that of Schleiermacher himself); the translation, in fact, is the result of a genuine philosophical dialogue that Schleiermacher established with Plato (pp. 112-113). According to Schleiermacher, even if every word has both its own proper meaning and also a metaphorical one, the multiplicity of meaning is not intrinsic to the word itself and thus to the text, but instead depends on a multiplicity of interpretations.
     Marassi applies Schleiermacher's hermeneutic theory to the word "truth", which Plato gives a metaphorical etymology. Taking as an example the text of Plato's Cratylus, Marassi shows that Schleiermacher does not translate alétheia literally, but instead he translates the sense that, in his view, appears along the whole Cratylus and Plato's other dialogs, because there is a really deep relationship between language, studied by hermeneutics, and knowledge, researched by dialectics (pp. 114-119).
     Schleiermacher's translations of Plato are the result of a triad: hermeneutic-rhetorics-dialectics. They show that his hermeneutics goes further than the critical-philological setting of F.A. Wolf: Schleiermacher does not just intend to reconstruct a past world; instead he aims to understand a text in order to acquire knowledge (p. 119). [Marassi's reflections, although not concerning archaeology, could offer a better understanding of the need to develop "A Critical Theory of Excavation and Inference in Archaeology". In fact, archaeologists also have to ask themselves if archaeology aims to reconstruct a past world or also to acquire knowledge.]
     According to Marassi, the novelty of Schleiermacher's hermeneutics is precisely its identification with the very act of understanding, not with a system of interpretative rules or with the search for identical structure of the passage or for its semiotic character (p. 122). The discourse, as a universal human phenomenon, becomes a living link between the author and the complexity of the tongue, between thought and its expression, and it needs both a grammatical and a psychological interpretation.
     Schleiermacher's dialectic is a theory of thought and knowledge that intersects logic and ontology with reference to Plato's philosophy of the inseparability of form and content. The dialectic becomes a methodology capable of indicating the nature of knowledge that is never absolute. The dialogue is the original form of knowledge and Schleiermacher, elaborating the link between hermeneutics and dialectic, provides a system of knowledge able to describe the connection between object, thought and language (p. 130).
     In conclusion, Schleiermacher's hermeneutic theory is not based on the diversity of the represented thing, but on the diversity of understanding. The translation of a word refers to a combination of thought and language that only hermeneutics and dialectics, in their union, could embody. [Schleiermacher's reflection could be of great help in developing a hermeneutics of the past. The philosophical dialog that Schleiermacher established with Plato could help in understanding that the knowledge of a civilization, even more so if we refer to a "broken" civilization, requires two phases: to build (the dialectic) and to rebuild (the hermeneutics). In fact, the finds, as well as words and texts, can have a differentiation of levels of understanding, and hermeneutics, applied to archaeological data, represents an effort of understanding in order to build the absent "living dialog" between finds and modern scholars.] – [Pia De Simone, January 2014]
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Marshall, Yvonne
2002 "What Is Community Archaeology?"
in World Archaeology 34.2, pp. 211-219.
8.12
     As the title suggests, this paper outlines the features and limits of community archaeology. Community archaeology typically involves a collaboration between professional archaeologists and local communities or 'stakeholders' - "Its most important distinguishing characteristic is the relinquishing of at least partial control of a project to the local community" (p. 211). That is to say that the community to a lesser or greater extent is part of the entire process of a project, including the kinds of questions asked, actual excavation, publication/dissemination and site and finds management. The 'community' sometimes consists of people who consider themselves living descendants of the place excavated (usually indigenous groups), but also others who have a relationship with a site even if direct descent is not part of it.
     The paper serves as an introduction to other articles in the same volume dealing with various case studies and aspects of community archaeology. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Matejka, Ladislav; Irwin R. Titunik
1977 Semiotics of Art: Prague School Contributions
Cambridge and London: MIT Press.
16.3.1
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Matero, Frank G.
2006 "Making Archaeological Sites: Conservation as Interpretation of an Excavated Past"
in Agnew & Bridgland 2006, pp. 55-63.
9.2
9.8.2
Th: excavation
     The author develops a few arguments which agree with the concepts expressed in Part Three of CAR ("The Reassembled Construct"), although synthetically. He considers archaeological sites the results of a series of human interventions: "They are made, not found. ... [They are] constructed through time, often by abandonment, discovery, and amnesia" (p. 57). Matero retraces the main stages of the emergence and development of the sensitivity to conservation of archaeological sites, and explores the different theories that arose among scholars from the beginning of the XXth century to recent days.
     The author stresses the importance of including conservation issues in archaeological strategy, and sees conservation as including both preventive and remedial types of interventions, and not exclusively as a post-excavation phase. "Ideally the process must be brought back into a cultural context so that the archaeology and conservation project become synonymous" (p. 63). [This agrees with what is expressed in CAR 9.2. There, the conceptual and concrete importance of this prerequisite for the archaeological record and the excavation strategy is proved through practical examples.]
     Finally, the issue of site presentation is also introduced, particularly in connection with practical aspects such as tourism. [In the paragraphs related to presentation, CAR 9.8, a wider approach to this topic is provided: site presentation should be directed at many different audiences and this should involve various strategies for the display of data coming from the excavations]. – [Stefania Ermidoro, January 2014]
2008 "Heritage, Conservation, and Archaeology: An Introduction"
AIA Site Preservation Program
Online publication: www.archaeological.org/news/hca/89 [last visited 16 March 2014]
9.2
     The author focuses on the apparently oppositional nature of archaeology and conservation. The first is considered an irreversible and subtractive process, a traumatic invasion of a site's physico-chemical equilibrium. The purpose of conservation, on the other hand, is identified in the safeguarding of the physical fabrics from loss and depletion.
     Matero highlights the nature of archaeological sites as places and, specifically, as fragile natural environments. Such an understanding has consequences for what is called "disposition" in the ninth chapter of CAR: the author states, in fact, that archaeology and conservation should work together as a conjoined enterprise. Both must be founded on a profound knowledge of the antecedents connected to the place under study, together with a know-how of the materiality of its constituents and the awareness of its cultural meanings and social role. Archaeological sites should be approached, thus, as cultural landscapes with ecological concerns: such a perception affects, as Matero shows, the way in which they are displayed for scholars, local stakeholders and as well as tourists. – [Stefania Ermidoro, March 2014]
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Mayer, Richard E. (ed.)
2005 The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning
Cambridge: Cambridge Univeristy Press.
11.5.1
     During the past 10 years, the field of multimedia learning has emerged as a coherent discipline with an accumulated research base that has never been synthesized and organized in a handbook. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning constitutes the world's first handbook devoted to the comprehensive coverage of research and theory in the field of multimedia learning. Multimedia learning is defined as learning from words (e.g., spoken or printed text) and pictures (e.g., illustrations, photos, maps, graphs, animation, or video). The focus of this handbook is on how people learn from words and pictures in computer-based environments. Multimedia environments include online instructional presentations, interactive lessons, e-courses, simulation games, virtual reality, and computer-supported in-class presentations. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning seeks to establish what works (i.e., to determine which features of a multimedia lesson affect learning), to explain how it works (i.e., to ground research in cognitive theory), and to consider when and where it works (i.e., to explore the implications of research for practice). – [Publisher's blurb, February 2017]
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Mayr, Ernst
1991 One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Modern Evolutionary Thought
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
12.4.1
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McAnany, Patricia A.; Ian Hodder
2009 "Thinking about Stratigraphic Sequence in Social Terms"
in Archaeological Dialogues 16.1, pp. 1-22.
4.2
Th: stratigraphy
     By placing stratigraphy and its use in archaeology in its historical context (at least as applicable to the Anglophone world), the authors argue that it is not the completely neutral method that is commonly taken for granted. Rather, it is especially tied to geology, where social processes do not play a role. They suggest the phrase 'social stratigraphy', where the focus is instead on the social events that are implied by stratigraphy. Many interesting examples are given, especially from Turkish and Central American excavations.
     [Two apt observations are made in the discussion papers that follow: that although the principles laid are perhaps more explicit, the idea is not really new; and that the term 'social stratigraphy' can lead to confusion with the similar sounding but very different meaning of 'social stratification'.] – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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McCarthy, Thomas [A.]
1990 "The Critique of Impure Reason: Foucault and the Frankfurt School"
in Political Theory 18, pp. 437-469.
15.2
     The article addresses the hidden continuity between Foucault and neo-Marxist thinkers. "The intrinsic 'impurity' of what we call 'reason' - its embeddedness in culture and society, its entanglement with power and interest, the historical variability of its categories and criteria, the embodied, sensuous, and practically engaged character of its bearers - makes its structures inaccessible to the sorts of introspective survey of the contents of consciousness favored by early modem philosophers and some twentieth-century phenomenologists" (p. 437). The boundaries of human reason are to be found in sociohistorical inquiry, not only in "an indefensible abstraction from social practices" [this echoes Dilthey and Simmel]. One must therefore aim "at grasping structures and rules that transcend the individual consciousness" (p. 438): such a supraindividual dimension is not transcendental but sociocultural [here "transcendental" seems to have the pre-Kantian acceptation]. – [Giorgio Buccellati, March 2014]
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McDonough, Richard
2013 "Referential Opacity and Hermeneutics in Plato's Dialogue Form"
in META: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy V.2/December, pp. 251-278.
Available online
14.7.2
14.8.4
14.9
     McDonough asserts that Plato's dialogs require a hermeneutical interpretation since their dialogical form creates a context in which it would be difficult to distinguish the assertions by Plato's characters from both Plato and the real world. In his view, Plato's dialogs are characterized by an "opaque context" – according to W.V.O. Quine's wording – a context in which a singular term cannot be supplanted by a codesignative term without disturbing the truth of the containing sentence (see Quine W.V.O., Word and Object, Cambridge: MIT Press 1960, p. 151).
     McDonough does not claim that one cannot discover Plato's real views by reading the dialogs; instead he argues the logical point that, because the assertions in the dialogs occur within an opaque context, one cannot derive Plato's views from the dialogs by means of logical inference (p. 257). Therefore, the life of the characters on phenomenological display in the dialogs becomes the primary philosophical datum of the dialogs (p. 259). [This analysis of Plato's dialogs presupposes, in my view, the notion of referentiality as presented in CAR, i.e., "the dynamic dimension of the whole seen in its wider context, and thus susceptible of a structural relationship to an outside element (or outside structure)" (CAR 14.9).
     In Plato's dialogs, to recognize the philosophical truth through the forms of life of the characters requires the distinction of different levels of expression. And this is what may be viewed as the core of the Kantian intuition of referentiality: "the reflection about the process that establishes the nexus between those different levels, in a way that safeguards the structural integrity of each level." (CAR 14.8.4). Hermeneutics of both archaeological data and Plato's dialogs implies the overcoming of knowledge as a self-contained system up to the possibility of identifying a higher referent that is outside the closed network of pure auto-referentiality. (CAR 15.7.2)] – [Pia De Simone, October 2014]
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McGimsey, Charles R.
2003 "The Four Fields of Archaeology"
in American Antiquity 68.4, pp. 611-618.
2.1
     The author outlines how the discipline of archaeology is divided into "four easily recognizable fields of endeavor: research and report writing based on or directed toward interpretation of archaeologically derived field data, university and college teaching, administration and management, and pubic outreach" (p. 612). Many archaeologists now focus solely or mainly on one of these fields [this is also reflected in job descriptions which directly aim at research or teaching in UK universities]. Each field is essential to the survival of the discipline, and should hold to certain standards, whether within or outside academia. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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McGlade, James
1999 "The Times of History: Archaeology, Narrative and Non-Linear Causality"
in Murray 1999a, pp. 139-163.
3.3
6.5
     The author starts with an outline of the discourse in archaeology on the topic of time. He points out some of the problems in both absolute and relative dating methods. Beyond their internal problems, they also provide limited views of time as either continuous or discontinuous, but always as causal and linear. He also highlights some of the methods as being gender biased. He suggests an alternative model that can encompass both, not unilinear and based on the idea of 'deterministic chaos'. In this model, "evolution occurs as a series of phase transitions between disordered and ordered states; successive bifurcations generating new ordered structure" (p. 149). The dynamics between order and chaos means that the model is not causal, making it very difficult to predict system behaviour, but it also means that exogenous explanations are not necessary to explain change or 'big events' (e.g. the advent of agriculture, collapses etc). – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
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McLuhan, Marshall
1962 The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man
Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Pres
11.6.3
1964 Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man
New York: New American Library.
11.6.3
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McLuhan, Marshall; Quentin Fiore
1967 The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects
New York: Random House.
11.6.3
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McMahon, Augusta
2013 "Space, Sound, and Light: Toward a Sensory Experience of Ancient Monumental Architecture"
in American Journal of Archaeology 117.1, pp. 163-179.
16.3.4
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McManus, Paulette M.
2000 Archaeological Displays and the Public: Museology and Interpretation
London: Archetype Publications.
9.6
     Collection of essays on the archaeological engagement with the public and how archaeology and heritage are and can be represented. Both sites and museums are discussed from a variety of countries and settings. – [Laerke Recht, February 2017]
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Merriman, Nick (ed.)
2004 Public Archaeology
London and New York: Routledge.
8.12
     In this volume, public archaeology is discussed from two points of view. One is 'educational' and often understood as outreach. It includes communicating archaeology to the public, with the public defined simply and broadly as non-archaeologists. The other concerns stakeholders and how archaeologists engage with them. In the introductory essay, Merriman discusses definitions and the variety of viewpoints and interests represented by the 'public'. He also outlines the kinds of engagements undertaken by archaeologists, for example the 'deficit' and 'multiple perspectives' models, with each of their advantages and problems. An important point is made that too little effort has gone into understanding the public view of archaeology, interests and needs, and how to effectively communicate. This has meant that much public engagement has failed or fallen short, "archaeologists must work very much harder at understanding the diversity of their audiences, and the kinds of meanings that people derive from archaeological materials" (p. 10). – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Meskell, Lynn
1995 "Goddesses, Gimbutas and 'New Age' Archaeology"
Antiquity 69.262, March 1995, pp. 74-86.
2.4.2
     In this paper, Meskell warns against the dangers of a specific type of grand narrative that has taken place based on female figurines from across Europe and the Near East and spanning long periods of time. The figurines are interpreted as 'Mother Goddesses', and used to argue for a time in the past where women held greater power in a matriarchy. Unfortunately, this narrative is not supported by the archaeological remains, requires archaeological 'selection' (only looking at the female, ignoring the male, ungendered, androgynous and animal) and usually involves removing the objects from their historically specific context of production and use. But these stories, first told by archaeologists, are picked up by popular movements and become part of political/feminist agendas that see the figurines as symbols with cultural continuity from the Paleolithic to the modern day.
     This 'history' is perhaps more revealing of today than of ancient realities. It is especially important that we remember that as archaeologists, we often take on the role of translator or channeller (willingly or unwillingly). – [Laerke Recht, July 2014]
2005 Archaeologies of Materiality
Edited by Lynn Meskell. Malden (Mass.): John Wiley & Sons.
16.4.1
     Collection of papers on the importance of objects in human lives. The papers discuss how artefacts are both created by humans and in turn create or help shape human identity, both social and individual. This is what is meant by the concept of materiality in archaeology. The aim is not only to put 'things' back into the discipline, but also to examine the relationship between things and humans. The concept is closely related to that of agency, where both humans and non-human entities are understood as active rather than passive agents (including animals, objects and landscapes/broader environments). In her introduction, Meskell offers a case study discussing the complex relations between South African indigenous groups, crafts and government, and how the objects created by indigenous groups become part of their identity and self-identity (for better or worse). – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Mezzanzanica, Massimo
2006 Dilthey: Filosofo dell'esperienza: Critica della ragione storica: vita, struttura e significatività
Quaderni del Magazzino di filosofia 4.
Milano: Franco Angeli.
14.5.1
14.6.5
14.11
     An insightful and well documented study that puts in a wider perspective not only Dilthey, but also several of the other philosophers who at about the same time were coping with Kant's legacy. Besides dealing extensively with Kant, the author offers a good overview especially of Lotze and Simmel. With Dilthey, they aimed to go beyond what they perceived to be Kant's excessive bent for abstraction. For my argument, it is of particular interest to note Lotze's interest in values, Dilthey's in structure, and Simmel's and Cassirer's (more even than Dilthey's) in the need to refine and develop the "critical" approach, applying it to the cultural or human sciences. [In my view, neither these authors, nor Mezzanzanica, pay sufficient attention to the question as to whether one can properly speak of an object-bound "pure reason," for which see 15.1 and 15.2.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2013]
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Miksa, Francis
1995 The Historical Development of Library Classification
Revision of "Classification" in Encyclopedia of Library Studies (1994).
3.1
     History of categorisation. Neat walk-through of the history of classification methods and studies up till today. – [Laerke Recht, July 2013]
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Miller, Robert
2005 Chieftains of the Highland Clans. A History of Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C.
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, pp. xx-186.
Th: broken traditions
     The archaeological metaphor of "taphonomy" is used to refer to the disontinuation in the use of an object that is "buried" in the ground: in the literary dimension, Miller applies the metaphor to the biblical tradition about the period of the Judges, which he defines as one of chiefdoms: he wants to show "where and how a memory of the past would have been preserved" thus describing "depositional process of that textualization" (p. 105). "If textualization was oral, that should not eliminate the possibility of coming up with a taphonomic model for the text" (p. 109f). The information can survive as a fossil, i.e., preserved accidentally by being inserted, but not properly integrated in the later narrative, such as details about institutions, onomastics, or the like, but generally not events (p. 110). In chapter 9, the author deals in detail with what an ancient "researcher" would have included in a later narrative about the period in question, in particular place names (pp. 116-120), clan affiliations (p. 120f) and institutional terms (pp. 121-124). – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2015]
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Mills, Barbara J.; William H. Walker (eds.)
2008 Memory Work: Archaeologies of Material Practices
Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press.
     This is a collection of essays on how social practice creates and actively produces social memory. The concepts of agency and materiality are particularly important in these discussions, where the intersection and mutual shaping of people and objects come to the fore. – [Laerke Recht, March 2017]
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Mishra, Sheila
1999 "Developing an Indian Stone Age Chronology"
in Murray 1999a, pp. 80-87.
6.5
7.5.2
     This paper is a case study in how changing paradigms in the perception of time in archaeology affect interpretation. The author looks at Indian Stone Age chronology for this purpose, and shows how especially the advent of absolute dating methods has had an impact on how things are understood, and how certain data might be suppressed in order to provide an overall view that fits. "The impact of absolute dating methods on archaeological chronologies has therefore been profound. However, it is important to remember that sometimes the results of such methods can be very inaccurate. Archaeological and geological assumptions about the age of a site are usually imprecise, but since they are built up from numerous observations they may be less subject to inaccuracy than the absolute dates can be. It is therefore important to use both sets of information in developing chronologies." (p. 81) – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
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Mithen, S.
2001 "Archaeological Theory and Theories of Cognitive Evolution"
in Ian hodder (ed.), Archaeological Theory Today, pp. 98-121.
     Mithen explores the cognitive side of cognitive archaeology, considering how cognitive evolution can help understand how interactions in our society today are influenced by patterns developed by our prehistoric ancestors. Mental modularity, the extended mind as well as evolutionary concepts related to language, the 'mind', life history, gender and cognition are all themes touched on in his article. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Montanari, Massimo
2004 Il cibo come cultura
Laterza: Roma-Bari.
Th: identity: food
     In this volume, the author aims at showing how food can and should be considered as a key factor of social cohesiveness and cultural identity.
     He considers the different phases through which it goes before the consumption and affirms that food is culture when it is chosen and produced: in fact, this activity depends on the human knowledge about nature, about the environment and the possibility to modify and profit from it. Food is culture when it is prepared: the transformation of the natural goods is determined by rules and techniques derived from social traditions, and from the different utensils manufactured in each community. Food is culture when it is consumed: in this particular moment, man expresses selections that depend on preferences and behaviors belonging to specific human groups. The quality and specificity of foodstuffs have been intended, consequently, as a direct expression of social membership, a concept that finds two different expressions: eating habits can derive from the belonging to a determined social affiliation, but it can also, and at the same time, reveal it.
     [Archaeologists and historians should also consider food practices and technologies as markers of ethnicity. Thus, they should look for material traces in the records at their disposals; this may help identify the sense of self-identity and belonging to a specific culture within the ancient or broken traditions they investigate] – [Stefania Ermidoro, October 2014]
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Montella, Massimo
2009 Valore e valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale storico
Milano: Electa per le Belle Arti.
9.2
10.7
     This book presents a particularly interesting approach toward various fundamental issues connected with the conservation and presentation of cultural heritage, since it deals with these topic from the point of view of an economist. The author seeks, in fact, to provide his readers with the practical guidelines of a system that would bring to awareness of use of historical heritage for the material as well as immaterial wealth of those individuals and communities to whom it belongs (and he often refers, in fact, to what he calls the 'Stakeholder Value Approach').
     Although the main focus of the book is on the Italian situation, he raises many fundamental questions concerning the profound meaning of the two terms "value" and "valorisation". In so doing, he goes against the stereotype of a neat separation of arts and economical issues, which he assumes is inferred by a wrong understanding of Kant's passage in the Critique of Judgement, in which the philosopher talks about the disinterested relationship with the arts.
     He proves, instead, that cultural heritage is necessarily connected to the requests of a wide and varied audience: as a consequence, its preservation and valorisation appear as two basic prerequisites in order to produce the highest level of effectiveness. He mentions another passage of the Critique of Judgement, where it is stated that "l'oggetto non è scelto soltanto in quanto 'buono in sè', ma anche in quanto 'buono a', cioè a dire idoneo a perseguire un determinato fine [...] legato all'interesse, diretto o indiretto, del soggetto operante".
     The macro- and microeconomic importance of the cultural heritage is thus made evident, as is the importance of the integration of politics of preservation and presentation as preventive interventions - contrary to what happens still today, where they are mostly planned as answers to emergency situations. [Even if coming from a different point of view, this book has many points in common with CAR. Methodologically, Montella shows a similar attention to the lexicon and is very careful in providing proper definitions for each concept discussed; as for the contents, he comes to the same conclusions about the importance of conservation as preventive intervention, of the critical relationship with different kinds of stakeholders and the necessity of adapting the presentation strategies coherently, and of the essential contribution of the digital dimension to the valorisation of cultural heritage.] – [Stefania Ermidoro, May 2014]
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Moran, Dermot
2000 Introduction to Phenomenology
London and New York: Routledge.
2.4.2
15.11.3
     An excellent introduction to the most important thinkers and concepts in the field of phenomenology, from Franz Brentano's psychology through Edmund Husserl's foundations of the phenomenological approach to Jacques Derrida's engagement with the subject. Of particular interest here are the sections on Husserl's concept of the epoché and Gadamer's hermeneutic contributions. – [Laerke Recht, May 2013]
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Moro, Andrea
2008 The Boundaries of Babel: The Brain and the Enigma of Impossible Languages
Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.
13.3.3
Th: broken traditions
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Moser, Stephanie
2007 "On Disciplinary Culture: Archaeology as Fieldwork and Its Gendered Associations"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 14.3, pp. 235-263.
2.8.1
     This paper is a detailed examination of what Moser calls the disciplinary culture of archaeology. Academic (and other) disciplines have been shown to have their own cultures, with internal functions of the community. This includes selection procedures for accepting new members, proper conduct within the group, initiation rites and role models / 'heroes'. Disciplinary culture plays an important part in individual and group identity. In archaeology, the criteria for inclusion and role models of "real" archaeologists are based on deeply masculine / male associations.
     Field work, especially excavation, remains central to the definition of archaeology (attaining an almost mythological status among both practitioners and the public), and it is especially here that masculine characteristics dominate. Moser points to aspects such as exploration, discovery, the outdoors, 'roughing it out', pushing back frontiers (with all the colonial connotations that involves), the stereotypical Indiana Jones outfit (with all its military implications), physicality/strength and heavy drinking. Moser argues that "[m]any of these concepts were aligned with masculine identity" (p. 249), and this perception prevails both within the discipline and in the public. Women are generally only allowed entrance if they essentially act like "one of the blokes" or spend their time with laboratory / indoor processing (which is not the work of "real" archaeologists in any case). [The point made here is important and one that should be addressed more often in archaeology, but also raises questions about how gender divisions are made and what qualifies as feminine or masculine.] – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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Müller-Scheessel, N.
1998 "’Archaeology is Nothing if it is not Critique’ Zum Archaeologieverstaendnis von Shanks und Tilley"
in Eggert & Veit, Theorie in der Archäologie: Zur englischsprachigen Diskussion, pp. 297-326.
     Müller-Scheessel presents an overview into the work of Shanks and Tilley, with a rich bibliography which points to both the work of the two authors in question as well as some authors their writing has influenced and critics of their work. In particular the influence of diverse philosophers and philosophical schools are mentioned in relation to Shanks' and Tilley's work – Gadamer, Foucault, Lacan, hermeneutics and structuralism to name a few. The structure of the article is particularly well designed, with headings such as “Materielle Kultur” and “Raum und Zeit” which collect the pertinent elements from Shanks' and Tilley's writings. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Murphey, Murray G.
1961 The Development of Peirce's Philosophy
Cambridge (Mass.): Harvard University Press.
14.10.1
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Murray, Tim
1999 Time and Archaeology
Edited by Tim Murray. London and New York: Routledge.
2.1
     Collection of essays examining time, its application and importance in archaeology, and how our perception of time impacts on interpretation. Some papers discuss concepts of time as found in different cultures and as influenced by religion, along with alternatives to linear time. Others look at the way in which archaeological practice determines how the material culture is understood and timelines created. This can have serious implications for our understanding of history, which cultures and people co-existed, trading connections and so on.
     For individual papers, see Murray 1999b, Murray 1999c, Agrawal et al 1999, Cremo 1999, Jolles 1999, Mishra 1999, Olivier 1999 and McGlade 1999. – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
1999 "Introduction"
in Murray 1999a, pp. 1-7.
2.1
10.4.1
     Introducing the papers on time in archaeology, Murray notes the current agreed conventions that "time is a human creation, and that the nature of time is diverse precisely because of human culture." (p. 1). The measurement of time is crucial for science and archaeology alike, and in both, the way we measure influences our results and interpretations.
     It is also now widely recognised that time is not understood as linear by all cultures and at all times (what is also known as "time's arrow", which is not only linear, but also progressive, always pointing forward). Time's arrow is most often contrasted with a cyclical perception of time, but, referring to the work of McCullough, Murray notes that time can also be understood as foundational, functional, social and artistic: "For McCullough foundational notions of time are conceptual and these involve the philosophical and theoretical dimensions of time; functional notions reveal time in its physical, economic and moral dimension; social notions bring out the lived and operational elements of time-consciousness and of community perceptions; and artistic notions flow from the imaginative world of human experience. Time is plural and cultural, it can also be singular and absolute, depending upon the context of inquiry or the context within which people seek to communicate (and justify) their understandings of the world." (p. 2).
     Concepts of time have also changed throughout the history of archaeology, and this can be detected in interpretation, including in movements that focus on events, long history, or on systems rather than people or objects. – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
1999 "A Return to the 'Pompeii Premise'"
in Murray 1999a, pp. 8-27.
2.1
     The author surveys the theoretical discussions concerning the concepts of the 'Pompeii premise' (seeing the archaeological record as frozen moments in time, as at Pompeii) and 'time perspectivism' (the view that several time scales exists in the way we perceive things - see Bailey 2008). These are partly bound up in debates between processualists and post-processualists, but do not exactly follow those lines. They are also dependent on what one means by 'archaeological record'. Murray does not argue for any particularly view or theory of time; he rather wants to point to the fact that archaeologists are yet to confront and meet the challenge of time in the way we practice archaeology. – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
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Mytum, Haroid
2003 "Artefact Biography as an Approach to Material Culture: Irish Gravestones as a Material Form of Genealogy"
in Journal of Irish Archaeology 12/13, pp. 111-127.
15.10.5
     This paper is a good case study of how object biographies can be created from artefacts. The author follows the 'life histories' of Irish grave stones, demonstrating their changing meaning and function, and how they can be seen to have social lives with "recognised 'ages' or periods in the thing's 'life'" (p. 112). – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Nash, Ronald J.
1995 "Deconstructing Archaeology?"
in Canadian Journal of Archaeology 19, pp. 19-28.
2.1
     This is a generic overview that situates the role of archaeology/ists within the impact of the Industrial Age, population growth, and the radical changes of the ecosystem occurring over the last century. It intends to maintain a futuristic voice, offering some ideas of how archaeology/ists should perceive their role in an environment that is experiencing rapid and multidimensional transformations.
     Nash argues for the construction of a negotiable bridge between science and technology and the humanities, religion and other participants. The tenets of several traditions in archaeology like the processual, post-processual and structuralist are treated briefly on the eve of this new era of drastic technological changes. As he claims, archaeology must shift into a more dynamic role that involves nature and culture, spiritual ecology, ecological politics and so on. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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O'Brien, Michael J.; R. Lee Lyman
2002 Seriation, Stratigraphy, and Index Fossils: The Backbone of Archaeological Dating
New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
2.1
2.3
2.8
3.1
4.1
4.2
5.1
5.3.3
6.2
6.5
7.4.3
15.10.4
Excerpts
Th: stratigraphy
     This highly theoretical book examines relative dating methods used in archaeology, specifically those of stratigraphy, seriation and index fossils. The authors offer a critical review and explanation of each method, along with a useful historical background of each. This background is crucial for the understanding of why we proceed the way we do in archaeological practice today, and for understanding where some things might have gone 'wrong' or gotten confused. By going through the merits and pitfalls of each method, the authors show that relative dating must remain a core part of archaeology even in modern times of various absolute dating methods.
     The focus throughout the book is on archaeological history in America (or among 'Americanists', as the authors prefer), but is very relevant for archaeology anywhere.
     The dating method chosen by the archaeologist has serious implication for how time is measured - continuously or discontinuously - and hence for archaeological interpretation. The sound measurement of time is one of the most fundamental tasks of archaeology. A continuous measurement of time allows for the detection of gradual change, whereas a discontinuous measurement of time will tend to see change in the biological term 'punctuated equilibrium'. The conflation of different means of measuring time leads to chronological errors.
     For a more detailed description and excerpts, see the Summary for this work.
     For other work by the same authors, see more entries under Lyman and O'Brien. – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
2002 "The Epistemological Nature of Archaeological Units"
in Anthropological Theory 2.1, pp. 37-56.
3.1
15.13
     An essential part of archaeological method is classification and the creation of typologies. Artefacts in particular are placed in categories based on certain characteristics, and these are then used e.g. for dating purposes. The theoretical basis for such categories, or 'units', are the topic of this paper. The authors argue for the importance in maintaining and recognising a division between ideational and empirical units. Ideational units are the categories archaeologists create and place artefacts into. They can be either pre-determined (meaning that the parameters are decided upon before consulting the actual material) or ad hoc (created while sorting through the material and based on found attributes). Either way, the units are ideational in the sense that they are not real entities. The objects/units within them, however, are empirical/real. The authors believe that it is when the ideational units are perceived as real that problems arise. For example, if the units are understood as reflecting cultural characteristics. – [Laerke Recht, October 2016]
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O'Meara, J. Tim
2001 "Causation and the Postmodern Critique of Objectivity"
in Anthropological Theory 1.1, pp. 31-56.
4.1
     This paper examines the postmodern [used as a catch-all for anything 'post-'] claim that facts and realities are subjective and/or socially constructed, leading to the conclusion that objectivity is impossible. Absolute objectivity, understood as direct knowledge of reality without any intervention of our perceptive organs, is of course impossible.
     A different understanding of objectivity is discussed (attributed to e.g. Searle), and ultimately rejected, by O'Meara is one where objectivity is seen as one of degree. This essentially relies on a claim being made, and its epistemological status and testing then depending on a consensus of opinion - i.e. if the more people agree, the more 'objective' the claim is ("'truth' is what the group makes it", p. 37). O'Meara thinks this line of argumentation originates in (incorrect applications of?) Hume's 'regularity theory', related to causation.
     The alternative proposed by O'Meara is what he calls a 'physical account of causation', according to which objectivity (only limited by the human senses) is possible and testable, and can even, perhaps especially, be applied to human thoughts and behaviour. This can be done by identifying "ontologically objective properties", which are characterised as having causal potential. The following implications are noted, "(1) ontologically objective properties and entities have causal efficacy, and claims about them are therefore amenable to the test of experience; (2) it is possible to gain objective knowledge of physical human beings, but not of the supra- physical 'social reality' that human beings imagine; and (3) the term 'objective' should refer fundamentally to the physical properties of the objects we observe and of the sense organs with which we observe them." (pp. 43-44).
     Objective evidence or fact is both physical and public, and therefore testable by anyone. Any objective claim can be tested with a simple 'litmus' test based on these arguments.
     [O'Meara comes from an anthropological perspective, and seems to be arguing against scholarly claims in anthropology concerning especially religion, authenticity and ethnicity. Thus, he argues, we can make no claim about the sanctity of a specific site (because this cannot be tested), but we can make objective assertitions about how people perceive a site - so we can say that certain people believe a place to be sacred, and we can produce empirical evidence to support and test the claim. The distinction is of course important, and also applies to archaeology, although the 'evidence' used for support would be quite different.] – [Laerke Recht, April 2016]
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Olivier, Laurent
1999 "The Hochdorf 'Princely' Grave and the Question of the Nature of Archaeological Funerary Assemblages"
in Murray 1999a, pp. 107-138.
2.1
3.1
     Using graves from German Halstatt culture, the author highlights the problems caused in both interpretation and chronology by the use of typological/seriation dating methods, which have a strong tradition in German archaeology. A case study re-evaluation of the assemblages and stratigraphy of specific tombs based on 'scientific' methods leads Olivier to a multi-temporal, multicultural and dynamic understanding. This emphasises various cycles of different temporal scales involved in the process of making a grave, burial, re-burial or additional burials, and post-burial activities. – [Laerke Recht, October 2015]
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Olsen, Bjørnar; Timothy Webmoor; Christopher Witmore
2012 Archaeology: The Discipline of Things
Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
2.1
2.4.2
2.7.3
8.1
9.8.1
13.1
Excerpts
     This book is a call for archaeology to return to the real object of its study: things. Modern movements across disciplines and in public opinion has demonised things, often opposed to humans or to "higher" pursuits of the mind. Part of this is related to industrialisation and the widespread occurence of machines, new technologies, factory mass production and cheap copies and replicas, which are seen as alienating and de-humanising. "Things" get caught up in these ideas and are considered "bad." Further, things are dirty and associated with work or even the working class.
     The primacy of "just" things has led to an embarrassment among archaeologists, and as a result they are not studied or respected in themselves, but always as a means to something else; as a sign or symbol of the human or human processes lying behind the thing.
     Agreeing with Lucas 2005, the authors also identify a gap between past and present often being created by archaeology through its practices, rather than bridging or properly mediating. The concept of time is again addressed, with a problematisation of the simply linear approach of most archaeologists.
     Instead of an embarrassment with things and attempts to always see beyond the thing itself, archaeologists should aim for a symmetrical archaeology of people among things and a genuine care for things. New digital technologies provide great opportunities for more transparency in the role of archaeologists as mediators, giving access to the steps taken from excavation to 'publication'. In fact, publication would in this way no longer be final in the traditional sense; it would also involve broader access and, in turn, interpretation. – [Laerke Recht, August 2014]
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Outram, Alan K.
2008 "Introduction to Experimental Archaeology"
in World Archaeology 40.1, pp. 1-6.
7.4.1
     Experimental archaeology is part of archaeological science in that it tests certain hypotheses. It is not the same as nor does it consist of reconstructing, reproducing or replicating, because "one does not actually know what the past was like, so one cannot reconstruct it" (p. 2). We may instead speak of constructs, at least in cases where objects are created. In experimental archaeology, "hypotheses can be tested with authentic materials and in a range of environmental conditions that aim to reflect more accurately 'real life' or 'actualistic' scenarios. Such experiments investige activities that might have happened in the past using the methods and materials that would actually have been available" (p. 2).
     Five types of experiments are listed: 1) constructs, 2) processes and function experiments, 3) simulation, 4) eventuality trial, and 5) technological innovation.
     Experimental archaeology is often confused with what might be called experiential activities (e.g. re-enactments) and educational tools (e.g. demonstrations and presentations). While each have their own merit, they are not the same, and do not have the same strict adherence to scientific principles that experimental archaeology does (or at least should). Finally, the author offers a list of pitfalls to consider when conducting and publishing experimental archaeology.
     This paper is an introduction to a volume on experimental archaeology: for more examples and case studies, see the full volume. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Overmann, Karenleigh A.
2016 "Beyond Writing: The Development of Literacy in the Ancient Near East"
in Cambridge Archaeological Journal 26, pp. 285-303.
16.5
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Panneerselvam, S.
1999 "Myths as Discourse in the Structural Hermeneutics of Lévi-Strauss"
in Indian Philosophical Quarterly 26.1, pp. 19-28.
14.4.3
     According to Panneerselvam, Lévi-Strauss uses myth as a form of discourse in his structural hermeneutics, as something secular that does not reveal any religious truths. Panneerselvam focuses on the structure of myths and how they are helpful in hermeneutical understanding. [The relevance given to structure by Lévi-Strauss, in order to understand myths and society (see below), is not far from the relevance given to structure concerning archeological data in CAR 14]. In Lévi-Strauss' theory of myth "there is a movement from text to context in order to make myth a discourse" (p. 19).
     In the first part, he analyzes myth's characteristics. Myths transcend time, are used as a form of symbolism, go beyond limit-situation, are always self-justified and cannot be examined merely in terms of their literal meaning. Despite these characteristics, myths are used to represent reality, and therefore it is important to assess their role in social thought and context.
     Panneerselvam distinguishes between scholars who, according to a critical theory, aim to postulate how myths are to be studied and used (Mircea Eliade, Lévi-Strauss, Malinowski) and others who, according to an applied theory, theorize myths' application in different fields like literature, politics or arts (Rosenberg, Bultmann).
     Lévi-Strauss develops the theory of myth by relating it to society (p. 21). He considers myths "strongly structured stories" and this strong structure allows the division of individual myths into constituent units (mythemes), classified in terms of their functions within myths, in order to provide a logical model (pp. 22-23). He also believes that myths, just like music, are "machines for suppressing time", even though they have to face up to the real time of their "performance." Therefore, the context can help us understand them. [Somehow, archaeological data, too, suppresses time and belong both to their real time and to "our" time and, furthermore, the is important for our understanding].
     Lévi-Strauss uses the principle of binary opposition [CAR 14.4.3] as a way of identifying the structural components of myth and also as a mode of confirming the structural analysis. Moreover, each myth provides a clue for explaining the structure of another myth and so forth (p. 25). Lévi-Strauss also argues that the structured study of myths is helpful in understanding societies. Myth is an assembly of odds and ends and everything is established through structure, configuration and relationship (p. 26).
     At the end of the article, Panneerselvam briefly compares Ricoeur's phenomenology and Lévi-Strauss' structuralism. He claims that Ricoeur uses Lévi-Strauss' concept of myth for developing his hermeneutic theory and that, according to Lévi-Strauss, "every language has a unique pattern, the units of which can be identified only in terms of their relationship to other units in the same language" and the fundamental organizing principles of language also establish the structure of institutions and practices such as kinship, social organization and myths (p. 27). – [Pia De Simone, July 2014]
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Panofsky, Erwin
1927 "Die Perspektive als 'symbolische Form'"
in Vorträge der Bibliothek Warburg 1924-1925 (Leipzig & Berlin, 1927), pp. 258-330.
Perspective as Symbolic Form, translated by C.S. Wood. New York: Zone Books, 1991.
New York: Zone Books, 1991.
Available online: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic775201.files/Readings_Week%202/Panofsky%20sect%201-3%20no%20plates.pdf (March 2016)
Reviews
11.6
16.4.3
1939 Studies in Iconology: Humanistic - Themes in the Art of the Renaissance
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reprinted with additions and the same title, New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1962.
Reviews
11.6
16.4.3
     The only chapter that deals explicitly with theory is the introduction (1962: pp. 3-31), which "synthesizes the revised content of a methodological article" published in 1932 ("Zum Problem der Beschreibung und Inhaltsdeutung von Werken der bildenden Kunst," in Logos 21, pp.103-119). The chapter will in turn be reprinted in Panofsky 1955 Meaning. The subtitle of the book underscores the fact that the content is primarily concerned with the intepretation of specific works. – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
1953 Early Netherlandish Painting
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Reviews
11.6
16.4.3
1955 Meaning in the Visual Arts: Papers in and on Art History
Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor Books.
3.3
7.6
11.6
15.5
16.4.3
17.1
Reviews
     Collected here are several papers that spell out the principles of the theory of iconology and give a detailed exemplification. The following chapters in particular are relevant for our interests. They were published at an earlier date (given in parenthesis after each title below), and this edition includes occasional revisions. They are masterly approaches to the subject, and defined the field of iconology as a meaningful method of analysis.
     (Introduction) The History of Art as a Humanistic Discipline (1940) – Humanism (11.6) is first defined in relationship and contrast with the animal, the uncivilized and the divine world; in contrast with these, "the humanist ... rejects authority. But he respects tradition" (p. 3). Thus humanism is tied to the cultural dimension of the record, which is selected into a canon (p. 5f). In answer to the (critical) question as to what is a work of art, P. answer in terms of aesthetics: "when we just look at it [an object] (or listen to it) without relating it, intellectually or emotionally, to anything outside itself" (p. 11). His notion of a "rational archaeological anaysis" comes close to my understanding of an archaeological reason.
     (1) Iconography and Iconology: An Introduction to the Study of Renaissance Art (1939) – This is the major systemic and theoretical statement of what P. means by "iconology": it was in fact published originally as the
     (2) The History of the Theory of Human Proportions as a Reflection of the History of Styles (1921) –
     (5) The First Page of Giorgio Vasari's "Libro:" A Study on Gothic Style in the Judgment of the Italian Renaissance (1930) – An extensive study of the formation, in the Italian Renaissance, of critical judgment with regard to theoretical and historical assessment of style. (a) Historical awareness. While objecting on many grounds to the "maniera tedesca" (the Gothic style), the Renaissance was able to "see it for the first time" (p. 187), gaining distance from it. "Thus the Italian Renaissance – in a first, great retrospective view which dared to divide the development of Western art into three great periods – defined for itself a locus standi from which it could look back at the art of classical antiquity" (p. 189); this marks "the emergence of what we may call a historical point of view" (p. 205). – (b) Style. The search for absolute standards ("perfetta regola," Vasari), and a definition of the deviations from it (p. 208), resulted in the discovery of harmony ("convenienza" or "conformità," Alberti, p. 190) as opposed to the "confusion of style and corruption of proportion" of the Gothic style, under which Giotto, too, is included (p. 209).
     (7) Et in Arcadia Ego: Poussin and the Elegiac Tradition (1936) – A small jewel, this article (originally published in the Cassirer Festschrift), unfolds with great skill and lucidity a complex argument where literary themes and figurative scenes are interwoven in a model of iconological analysis. Beginning with the analysis of Arcadia as a changing theme in antiquity (with some very insightful pages on Virgil and his role in establishing the trope), P. shows how the alternate ways of seeing the connection between the reality of death and the imagined beauty of a utopic landscape. The relevance for our interest is in the way in which iconology becomes hermeneutics (16.4.3), all the while it is being resurrected from across the gulf of a broken tradition. Even the presence of a written statement lends itself to contrasting interpretations, and these in turn affect the attribution of meaning to a set of changing figurative details. – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
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Patrik, Linda E.
1985 "Is There an Archaeological Record?"
in Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 8, pp. 27-62.
13.1
15.3
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Pearson, Mike; Michael Shanks
2001 Theatre/Archaeology
London and New York: Routledge.
9.8.1
     Pearson and Shanks explore intersections between archaeology and performance or theatre, "both disciplines acknowledged their functioning as modes of cultural production, involving the recontextualisation of material rather than its reconstruction." (p. ix). From an archaeological perspective, the idea is that archaeology itself is constructed, performed - "archaeological excavation as performance event" (p. ix). The format is almost autobiographical, written mostly in the first person singular and plural. The emphasis in on the entanglement of the past with the present, and the two are seen as co-dependent. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Peirce, Charles Sanders
1937 Collected Papers
Edited by Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss (vols. 1-6) and Arthur W. Burks (vols. 7-8). 1931-1937.
Most recent edition: Cambridge (Mass.): The Bellknap Press, 1965-67.
Citation is by volume and paragraph, e.g.: 1.1 = Vol. 1, paragraph 1.
14.10.1
14.11
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Pereboom, Derk
2014 "Kant's Transcendental Arguments"
in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Fall 2014 edition.
Available online: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive [Accessed 1 August 2016]
14.3.1
     Explication of Kant's use of transcendental arguments, "an argument of this kind begins with a compelling premise about our thought, experience, or knowledge, and then reasons to a conclusion that is a substantive and unobvious presupposition and necessary condition of this premise." This includes Kant's confrontation with especially David Hume. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Pettitt, Paul B.
2005 "Ideas in Relative and Absolute Dating"
in Renfrew & Bahn 2005, pp. 47-52.
Th: stratigraphy
     Short review and disussion of relative and absolute dating techniques in archaeology, along with limitations and possible future avenues. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Charles Spence
2012 "The Influence of the Color of the Cup on Consumers' Perception of a Hot Beverage"
in Journal of Sensory Studies 27.5, pp. 324-331.
16.3.2
     Study demonstrating how the physical attributes of containers can influence the perception of taste (in this case, the colour of the cup used to drink hot chocolate was shown to influence the intensity of the chocolate flavour, but not its level of sweetness). – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Pizzeghello, Andrea; Massimo Vidale; Guiseppe Salemi; Vincenzo Tinè; Sergio Di Pilato
2015 "De-constructing Terracotta Female Figurines: a Chalcolithic Case-study"
in Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica. Natural Sciences in Archaeology, Vol. 6/1, pp. 7-17.
Available online: http://www.iansa.eu [Accessed October 2016]
6.3.3
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Plato
1881 The Theaetetus
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Translation and notes by Benjamin Hall Kennedy.
8.11
     Dialogue where Socrates discusses his role as a midwife of the mind (maieutics), see esp. pp. 111-114. – [Laerke Recht, March 2016]
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Politis, Gustavo G.; Nicholas J. Saunders
2002 "Archaeological Correlates of Ideological Activity: Food Taboos and Spirit-Animals in an Amazonian Hunter-Gatherer Society"
in P. T. Miracle and N. Milner (eds.), Consuming Passions and Patterns of Consumption.
Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 113-130.
7.4.3
Th: identity: food
     This article represents an ethnoarchaeological study on the possible connections between archaeological finds and social activities influenced by ideological beliefs. The authors studied the cultural habits of the Nukak of the Colombian Amazon, and analyzed how these influenced the zooarchaeological record of the sites. [The article highlights how a correct and accurate account of the archaeological data, carefully recorded and considered as interwoven, sheds light not only on the material culture of a given society but also on its ideology and religious practices.] – [Stefania Ermidoro, October 2014]
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Postgate, J. Nicholas
1994 "Text and Figure in Ancient Mesopotamia"
in Renfrew & Zubrow 1994, pp. 176-184.
2.5.4
7.4.2
     Postgate addresses the barrier between linguists and archaeologists. Especially in Near Eastern studies, experts on either side are hesistant to go beyond their own research area. This means that archaeological context, object and text become separated. Rare attempts to analyse the different data together usually only include selected material. The paper is intended as an example of the benefits (and necessity) of incorporating all the material in the analysis and interpretation. – [Laerke Recht, March 2016]
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Potter Jr., Parker B.
1992 "Archaeology: In the Ground and on the Street"
in Historical Archaeology, Meanings and Uses of Material Culture 26.3, pp. 117-129.
15.3
15.12
16.2.1
     Recursivity is the key word of this research and explicitly it refers to the active quality of material culture. Annapolis city is taken as wide experiment, applying the critical theory of the Frankfurt School, or the so-called "immanent critique". In archaeology, critical theory the base on which history is created is at the center of attention, so that it can less easily be used against people. Material culture is perceived as an active agent that highlights crucial issues regarding the operation of society and the way people think and behave.
     The paper takes three different directions: 1) an ethnographic premise that deals with the ideological and social aspects under which archaeological study takes place. It attempts to link the characteristics of creamware plates (a category of ceramic under investigation), the kind of labor dedicated to their making and the kind of behavior that made use of them; 2) the investigation of the artifacts (ceramic, creamware) and how their parameters are affected by ideologies that reflect recursivity and emulation (social inequality), and how archaeology reveals past ideologies through material culture and; 3) the role of archaeology in public, how material culture is presented to the public, and why a great deal of information is taken for granted and simply accepted. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Powell, Barry B.
2009 Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization
Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
11.1.1
11.9.2
     Good recent account of the originals of writing, proto-writing and first writing systems. – [Laerke Recht, March 2016]
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Preucel, Robert W.
2006 Archaeological Semiotics
Oxford: Blackwell.
14.8.4
16.3.1
16.5
Excerpts
     Preucel discusses the use of semiotics in archaeology and related fields. After outlining the theories and impact of de Saussure and Peirce, he identifies semiotic aspects of processualism, post-processuallism and cognitive archaeology. De Saussure has been enormously influential in all human sciences, including archaeology. Peirce much less so, but Preucel argues vehemently for the advantages of Peirce's tryadic system as opposed to de Saussure's dichotomy between signifier and signified. Peirce's tryad of sign-object-interpreter allows for a more contextual analysis that can take both the individual and the concept of materiality into account. – [Laerke Recht, November 2016]
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Preziosi, Donald
1979 The Semiotics of the Built Environment
Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press.
16.3.3
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Propp, Vladimir
1958 Morphology of the Folktale
Translated by Laurence Scott.
Bloomington: Research Center, Indiana University.
16.2.1
     The book of Propp has set a standard for the method he uses: he thinks that the traditional study of the origin of the folktale has to come after the study of what the folktale is, but this is only possible through the identification of formal and structural characteristics. [See also Lévi-Strauss 1960.]
     From a conglomeration of different stories (the Russian Fairy Folktales), Propp is able to identify the paradigms into which they fall, their grammar. He directs his attention to the constitutive elements of the fairy folktale (the 31 functions) that never change, and to their relationship (the sequence). On the other hand, like a grammar, his model does not produce meaning in itself, but is the basis for every further interpretation. In fact, he is sure that through the analysis of the constant elements, it is possible to achieve a scientific study of the origins, history and variation of the fairy folktale.
     Thus, the identification of the repetition of some characteristics and of their links permit the identification of the structure behind the apparent diversity of the fairy folktales. [In the same way, the archaeological analysis of material data and in particular the typological analysis has to identify formal criteria which have to be univocal and coherent. These formal criteria are the first step on which the following work of interpretation is founded.] – [Beatrice Paolucci, January 2014]
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Radice, Roberto
2010 "Allegoria: evoluzione del concetto e del metodo nel pensiero greco"
in A. Ghisalberti (ed.), Mondo Uomo Dio. Le ragioni della metafisica nel dibattito filosofico contemporaneo.
Milano: Vita e Pensiero, pp. 303-326.
2.3
2.4.2
     According to Radice, philosophy's diffusion has occurred in space, time, culture and society like concentric circles produced by the fall of a stone into a pond. In this article, Radice focuses on allegory, which he defines as "the second circle of the philosophical communication", i.e., the process of transformation of divine figures and their actions in terms of philosophy (p. 304). The relationship between myth and logos required the canonization of the text, the fixing of symbols mainly through etymology and the codification of the rules of the interpretation - what he calls allegoresi (p. 306).
     Allegory implies two presuppositions: the existence of a mythograph (someone who knows the truth and "put" it into the myths) and the existence of an allegorist (someone who can decipher the truth of the myths). Radice considers Stoics as founders of allegoresi and, going forward, he examines the allegoresi's evolution from the Hellenistic tradition to Alexandrian Judaism; in conclusion, he focuses on Filo of Alexandria's exegesis regarding the creation of the cosmos in his De Opificio Mundi (pp. 320-324).
     [A very interesting thought developed by Radice is that allegoresi's evolution - occurring from the Hellenistic tradition to the Alexandrian Judaism - could be explained as an evolution from a "rhapsodic allegory" to a "sequential allegory". This is the result of no longer focusing on the author of the text, but instead on the text itself (pp. 318-319). Philo of Alexandria, in fact, aimed to interpret the Bible, therefore he had to follow the narrative connection.
     Buccellati's definition of archaeology as "the stratigraphic analysis of cultural remains" (CAR 2.2) clarifies the archeological difficulty in having "no access to the thing-in-self as it is, but only through the observational itinerary of the excavator" (CAR 1.1). In my opinion, mutatis mutandis, archaeological remains imply - as allegory - the existence of someone who "made" them and someone who should decipher the truth of the remains themselves (archaeologists), and although they could belong to broken traditions (CAR 2.3) they need to be analyzed by "a sequential allegory"]. – [Pia De Simone, March 2014]
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Rathje, William L.; Michael Shanks; Christopher Witmore (eds.)
2013 Archaeology in the Making: Conversations Through a Discipline
London and New York: Routledge.
2.1
Excerpts
Th: stratigraphy
     This book is a collection of transcribed (and slightly edited) conversations between the editors and a range of people who have had a significant impact on archaeology (without claiming to be representative). The informal mode of conversation means that many personal histories, details and circumstances of career come to the fore, and with each archaeologist, the editors attempt to make them explain how they came to be where they are and what they consider the big issues in archaeology today. The result is a range of concerns and interesting differing ways of understanding the role of archaeologists. A special emphasis on archaeology in the present and for the future emerges out of the discussions as a whole.
     See Excerpts for more details of each conversation. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Read, Dwight
1982 "Toward a Theory of Archaeological Classification"
in Whallon & Brown 1982, pp. 56-91.
3.1
     The paper plausibly balances theory with methodology in artifact classification. Somehow different from other authors in the same volume who intend to overemphasize the methodological perspective (e.g. Spaulding 1982, Hodson 1982 or Cowgill 1982). Read offers a cohesive synthesis on the benefits of classification in archaeological data, to what extent the understanding of attributes and properties reflect cultural, technological and social premises of a unit/group, and under what circumstance they change over time. Evidently, the approach is highly controversial with the type-variety system of classification.
     In fact, this paper precedes what later became a complete and comprehensive work of Read on classification, based largely on the so-called conceptual approach (Read 2007). Read combines cluster analysis and paradigmatic classification for the definition of types as nonrandom frequency of attribute combinations. What is even more effective with the approach is the particular attention given to any attribute of the data and to what extent the significant groups of either separate or combined attributes answer particular queries concerning the data. – [Esmeralda Agolli, April 2014]
1989 "Intuitive Typology and Automatic Classification: Divergence or Full Circle?"
in Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 8, pp. 158-188.
     An important and complex overview of the ramifications of quantification in various groups of artifacts! A deep and thoughtful grasp that largely remedies previous works and achievements (e.g. Spaulding 1982, Dunnell 1971, 1982, Rouse 1960, 1972, Krieger 1944) on the matter. In a conceptual and procedural framework, Read elaborates on the many stages of the classification process and how results yielded from statistical operations become meaningful and potentially interpretative.
     This cogent overview and analysis includes several key concepts, like the relation of artifacts with types, the careful designation of emic and etic spheres in the organization and establishment of variables, the intuitive versus the replicable procedures and the conversion to numerical order through taxonomic and paradigmatic tools.
     Read finds that this chain of operations has not always been carefully understood and applied to archaeological data. Moreover, when sieved through the numerical taxonomic and paradigmatic procedures, any kind of data or collection has led to at least two crucial problems: the local and the global (see the excerpt). These two procedures also do not allow for an inductive and emic selection of the variables, especially concerning the process of the class formation.
     In order to facilitate the selection of variables and above all to minimize the intrusion of the hands and thoughts of the analyst choices (etic) into the data and resolve the divergences, Read goes on to suggest the hierarchical approach, a tool that does not assign pre-defined values (like the taxonomic structure) to variables. In the subsequent phase, he activates the principal component analyses which only take the potential groups into consideration and show the relationships of variables. Results are then interpreted based on the performance of the variables and their emic meaning and significance. – [Esmeralda Agolli, August 2014]
2007 Artifact Classification: A Conceptual and Methodological Approach
Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
3.1
     The book offers a coherent synthesis, with a particular focus on the modes of artifact classification and entering the long term discussion on the matter with a highly complex methodological approach on quantitative and qualitative analysis. Read effectively combines the inductive and deductive premises, constructing a classification system that relies on a triple association: cultural unit - actions of artisan - properties of artifacts. He succeeds in producing a methodological framework narrowly defined within the aspects of the 'thinking' and 'physical action', confined by the parameters of culture, exchange, individual expressions and so on. – [Esmeralda Agolli, March 2014]
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Read, Dwight,; Steven A. LeBlanc
1978 "Descriptive Statements, Covering Laws, and Theories in Archaeology"
in Current Anthropology 19.2, pp. 307-335.
2.1
4.1
15.13
16.2.2
     A concise account, focused on the nature of archaeological theory. It explores concepts established earlier by New Archaeology, treating the use of theory in the field with high confidence and clarity, and above all, its potential to yield scientifically tested results. Read and LeBlanc give some attention to the dispute of New Archaeology, categorizing three main branches of criticism: 1) that archaeology cannot be scientific; 2) that nothing claimed for a scientific archaeology is substantially different from the behavior and thought of traditional archaeologists; and 3) that the description of scientific methodology as generally presented by the 'new archaeologists' contains errors of substance. The third branch is partly treated as a valid point, given the evasive and unsecure nature of conclusions and interpretations yielded by the early stage of New Archaeology.
     The authors attempt to remedy crucial aspects of inductive and deductive dimensions. The construction of arguments in archaeology remains at the center of attention, especially discussing the confirmation of descriptive statements, confirmation of covering laws and the covering-law model of explanation. Read and LeBlanc argue for an integrated scheme of research that covers the formulation of descriptive statements supported by laws and confirmations that are based on inductive and analytical operations.
     The formulation of universal laws is crucial to archaeology. Moreover, they argue that the lack of covering laws gives the discipline an evasive focus with no intention to contribute to common and comparative paradigms. Specifically, they state that: "one of the important functions of a theory is to exhibit systematic connections between experimental laws about qualitative disparate subject matters. Three components can be distinguished in a theory: 1) an abstract calculus that is the logical skeleton of the explanatory system and that implicitly defines the basic notions of the system; 2) a set of rules that in effect assign an empirical content to the abstract calculus by relating it to the concrete materials of observation and experiment; and 3) an interpretation or model for the abstract calculus, which supplies some flesh for the skeletal structure of terms of more or less familiar conceptual to visualize materials."
     The paper is followed by an appendix that deals with a case study (conducted by Read) and several comments which favor the theoretical agenda but express reservations concerning its implementation. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Renfrew, Colin
1980 "The Great Tradition versus the Great Divide: Archaeology as Anthropology?"
in American Journal of Archaeology 84, pp. 287-98.
2.1
4.1
15.12.4
16.5
16.6.2
     A vibrant overview, presented at the centennial celebrations of the Archaeological Institute of America. Given the occasion, in narrative and analytical terms, the paper addresses several matters of the historical development of archaeology. Renfrew limits his focus to two streams, namely: the great tradition and the great divide. One can easily realize which of the two is his favorite. He venerates the Great Tradition, mentioning various meticulous efforts which after the milestones of Thompsen (1836), Darwin, Denis and Layard revived the discipline in a completely innovative dimension, to name a few: Winckelmann (Herkulaneum), Carl Blegen, Saul Weinberg, Jack Caskey, or John Coleman. The prevalence given to prehistory, the development of field techniques, including stratigraphic excavations, full and detailed publications of the excavated data are only a few aspects that amaze him the most.
     The Great Divide, as inferred from the title, neither reflects nor resembles the glory of the previous phase. Renfrew attributes almost any development of this movement to the approach of New Archaeology, confined to the United States. Rather evasively, it criticizes the involvement of anthropology in archaeology but does not clearly pinpoint which of the anthropological theoretical subjects are irrelevant to archaeology. At most, it draws the attention to the emphasis of Flannery, who sees anthropological archaeology as an avenue that is only preoccupied with evolutionary interpretations. Renfrew sees as clearly irrelevant or at least overlapping with the Great Tradition matters like the hypothetic-deductive, or culture system. The lack of systematic excavations, the careful assessment of the data and above all the superficiality of salvage archaeologists comprise the most criticized aspects springing from this movement.
     As a strong defender of the Great Tradition, Renfrew supports its gradual development in practice, theory and interdisciplinary. His theoretical approach is fully based on cognitive archaeology: "a theoretical preoccupation with the social and with the way man's intellect and his mental processes govern his actions in the world and shape his responses". Towards the end, Renfrew's claim to New Archaeology is to turn the eye to the achievements of the human sciences, e.g. language, classics and of course to the Great Tradition. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
1994 "Cognitive Archaeology"
in Renfrew & Zubrow 1994, pp. 3-12.
15.9
16.5
Summary
2001 "Symbol before Concept"
in Ian Hodder (ed.), Archaeological Theory Today, pp. 122-140.
     Renfrew draws on theories tied to cognition, and discusses the interplay and interdependence of symbols and the concepts they represent, arguing that the concept is not necessarily the active precedent for a subsequent passive symbol. This pairing is present before the advent of writing, and should be seen as a fundamental precursor to the development of writing. The concepts of value, measure, commodity and exchange are discussed, as well as the meaning behind iconic and aniconic representations. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
2007 Prehistory: The Making of the Human Mind
London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
2.1
     The first part of the book offers a history of archaeology that is of particular relevance to us for two reasons. The first is that this history is seen from the perspective of a major contributor to the very subject about which he writes, so that his judgment is particularly sophisticated and enlightening. The second is that, as it turns out at the end of chapter four, the background here offered serves as a justification for the second part that more directly deals with the title of the book itself. In a subtle but significant way, Renfrew suggests that cognitive science offers in effect a new direction for archaeology, a qualitative jump that (almost symbolically) comes 150 years after the great turning point of 1859, the year of the meeting of Prestwich, Evans and Boucher de Perthes regarding the "antiquity of man" and the publication of Darwin's Origin of the Species. It is, in Renfrew's perspective, a whole new way to develop comparative archaeology at a much deeper level than ever attempted before. – [Giorgio Buccellati, August 2013]
2012 Cognitive Archaeology from Theory to Practice: The Early Cycladic Sanctuary at Keros
The Annual Balzan Lecture, 3. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, pp. 56.
16.5
     This slender monograph deals primarily with the results of the excavations at the island of Keros in the Cyclades. The cognitive aspect is touched on only briefly, with regard to the concept of religion, which is identified restrictively with the worship of recognizable divine figures (see especially pp. 22, 41, 43). On this basis, the island is seen as "a ritual center, a symbolic attractor, but perhaps not the home of a deity and therefore not a place of cult. As such it is one of a class of sites where ... ritual precedes cult" (p. 43). – [Giorgio Buccellati, April 2014]
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Renfrew, Colin; Paul G. Bahn (eds.)
2005 Archaeology: The Key Concepts
London and New York: Routledge.
     Book presenting critical essays on archaeological - Themes - selective and analytical rather than comprehensive.
     See entries by Pettitt 2005 (dating), Carver 2005 (excavation), Hodder 2005 (postprocessual), Sabloff 2005 (processual) and Stein 2005 (stratigraphy). – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Renfrew, Colin; Ezra B.W. Zubrow (eds.)
1994 The Ancient Mind: Elements of Cognitive Archaeology
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. xiv-195.
16.5
     See also Postgate 1994 and Renfrew 1994. – []
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Richards, Julian D.
2002 "Digital Preservation and Access"
in European Journal of Archaeology 5.3, pp. 343-366.
13.5.12
     This paper provides a good overview of both the problems and potential of digital preservation within archaeology. The focus is mainly on the situation in the UK, but examples from elsewhere are also introduced. Richards identifies a storage crisis in archaeology, with museums and other archival facilities running out of space. Digital preservation offers an excellent solution to this problem.
     However, digital preservation comes with its own unique set of considerations. As Richard puts it, "Digital data require active curation" (p. 344). That is, developments in both software and hardware occur at very high speed, so formats have to be continuously updated (alternatively, old formats have to be kept in working order, something which increases in difficulty with time). Richards then goes on to discuss the role and potential of the ADS (Archaeological Data Service) in the UK and its preservation activities and mission. Important for this service is not only digital preservation, but along with this, dissemination and re-use. Material is evaluated according to these criteria, and a significant part of the work is ensuring broad access and availability of the archived material. – [Laerke Recht, November 2016]
2006 "Archaeology, E-Publication and the Semantic Web"
in Antiquity 80.310, pp. 970-979.
11.3.6
     Another paper on the potential of online/digital publication, and an assessment of the future of academic journals. The problem of long-term preservation of digital material is noted, along with questions about who is responsible for such preservation. The greatest advantage of digital publication for archaeology is seen in the Semantic Web's use of ontologies. If a good, agreed-upon ontology could be created for archaeological research, linking would become possible, and could offer a "solution to the problem of information overload created by the web" (p. 977). – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Ricoeur, Paul
1963 "Symbole et temporalité"
in Archivio di filosofia 1963, pp. ....
14.10.1
15.3
     This article is prominently quoted by Lévy-Strauss 1964 Cru, who concurs with Ricoeur's judgment that his is "Kantism without a transcendetnal subject" (p. 24). He also refers to p.9, where Ricoeur speaks of a "unconscious that is more Kantian than Freudian, an unconscious that categorizes and is combinatory," and to p. 10: "a categorical system without reference to a thinking subject, ... (rather) homologous to nature, in fact perhaps even the same as nature." – [Giorgio Buccellati, August 2013]
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Rodi, Frithjof
1972 "Das Erlebnis: die 'dynamische Einheit'"
Based on the article "Grundzüge der Poetik Wilhelm Dilthey" in H. Koopmann and J.A. Schmoll gen. Eisenwerth (eds.), Beiträge zur Theorie der Künste im 19. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt am Main, pp. 79-90.
Newly written and quoted after Das Strukturierte Ganze, pp. 107-120.
1985 "Dilthey's Kritik der historischen Vernunft – Programm oder System"
in Dilthey-Jahrbuch für Philosophie und Geschichte der Geisteswissenschaften 3, pp. 140-165.
Quoted after the expanded reprint in Das Strukturierte Ganze, pp. 36-55.
14.10.1
     More than a vague program, the concept of a Critique of Historical Reason was conceived by Dilthey as a regular system. This emerges from a consideration of the deep "architectonic unity," i. e. structure, of the whole which cannot be seen in mere technical terms. It is true that there is a certain caution on Dilthey's part to use the phrase "Critique of Historical Reason," but in effect he comes back repeatedly to this concept, and there is a strong derivation of the whole from a single higher goal. Rodi proceeds to show the centrality of this concept along three directions.
     (1) The foundational concept ("life = the whole") is brought out through the emphasis on the notions of totality (the whole man), correlativity (between polar opposites like fear and hope, sorrow and happiness), continuity (the coherence over time within the whole), factuality (life must be understood as it is, even if we cannot explain it).
     (2) Epistemology, logic and methodology serve as the technical support apparatus for a unified conception of the system. The "perspective of life" provides the unifying thread, and attests to the centrality of the "inner architectonics" of the notion of a critique of historical reason.
     (3) The psychic structure is an "alternating dominant theme" that recurs in his work, attests to the continuity of Dilthey's concern for the totality of human nature. Rodi shows how Dilthey came progressively to the clarification of the concept and the introduction of the very term "structure," see especially p. 60: in the years since 1886/87 "sind .. zwei Kriterien für eine Veränderung der Grundkonzeption zu nennen: die Einfürung des Strukturbegriffs und die Anfänge einer Theorie der Lebenskategorien. Beides geschieht vermutlich im Umkreis der Poetik."
     [This paper deals explicitly with themes that I develop in some detail, in particular the concepts of unity and of subdivision seen as equivalent to structure (e.g., "das Paradigma ee Einheit der Melodie, die weder eine einfache, ungegliederte Einheit, noch eine diskrete Einheit darstellt," p. 45; "Die Natur der Einheit, welche so als Bedingung der seelischen Vorgäge anzunehmen ist, ist uns gänzlichunbekannt," p. 49, citing Dilthey); "Das deutsche Wort 'Gliederung' könnte ... durchweg durch 'Struktur' ersezet werden, was Dilthey im Zuge der Weiterentwicklung dieser Konzeption denn auch tut," p. 61. – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2013]
1998 "Der Strukturzusammenhang des Lebens"
in M. Fleischer and J. Hennigfeld (eds.), Philosophen des 19. Jahrhunderts: Eine Einführung.
Darmstadt, pp. 199-219.
Quoted after the reprint in Das Strukturierte Ganze, pp. 17-35.
16.1
16.2.1
     Dilthey is considered a classic of hermeneutics, even though he never accepted this classification (p. 18, see also p. 29). He did however contribute to the field because of his insistence on the relationship between the structured whole and its parts (p. 18) and because of the emphasis on context, whereby items do not simply "fall from heaven", but are always set within a given pre-understanding (Heidegger) or pre-judgment (Gadamer, p. 20). The central dimension of his "hermeneutics" is the concept of life, which he develops in a tone that is more evocative than discursive (in this being close to Nietzsche (p. 21)), a concept that developed through three stages.
     (1) Through a process of secularization (away from his early theological education), Dilthey rejects the notion of the individual as an isolated element that could be "made into a social atom that can almost be analyzed after the manner of the natural sciences" (p. 25).
     (2) The next step (which coincides with the appearance of the Einleitung in 1883) develops more explicitly the notion of a Critique of Historical Reason, even if in contradistinction to Kant, especially in three respects: the rejection of the knowing subject as merely tied to thinking, the perceived a-historicity of Kant's notion of the apriori, the definition of time as a pure form of appearance (p. 28). There develops also a clearer terminological definition: "Indem so die Lebenseinheit sich von dem Milieu, in welchem sie lebt, bedingt und wiederum rückwirkend auf dasselbe findet, entsteht heraus eine Gliederung ihrer inneren Zustände. Ich bezeichne dieselbe als die Struktur des Seelenlebens." Dilthey V 200, cited on p. 30)
     (3) In the later Dilthey, there is even more stress on the "Struktur des Seelenlebens" (p. 31), and the notion of values and their implementation, hence of meaning, becomes more and more important. – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2013]
1999 "'Der Zweck ist eben das strukturierte Ganze selbst.' Die Rolle der Musik in Diltheys Leben und Schriften"
Based on the article "Das paradigma der Musik in Diltheys Verständnis des Lebens," in Ch. Asmuth, G. Scholtz, Fr.-B. Stammkötter (eds.), Philosophische Gedanke und musikalischer Klang. Zum Wechselverhältnis von Musik und Philosophie.
Frankfurt/New York, pp. 127-139.
Newly written and quoted after Das Strukturierte Ganze, pp. 133-150.
2001 "Der 'schaffende' Ausdruck: Bemerkungen zu einer Kategorie des späten Dilthey"
Original of the Italian version published in Paradigmi. Rivista di Critica Filosofica 56, pp. 235-247.
Quoted after Das Strukturierte Ganze, pp. 121-132.
2003 Das Strukturierte Ganze: Studien zu den Werk von Wilhelm Dilthey
Weilerswist: Velbrück Wissenschaft.
14.5.1
15.1
     Collection of articles, of which five are of perticular interest for our argument. The first two deal with the concept of structure.
     The other three deal with special aspects of semiotic theory. – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2013]
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Roosevelt, Christopher H.; Peter Cobb; Emanuel Moss; Brandon R. Olson; Sinan Ünlüsoy
2015 "Excavation is Destruction Digitization: Advances in Archaeological Practice"
in Journal of Field Archaeology 40, pp. 325-346.
13.1
Th: excavation
     This article modifies an old archaeological adage – "excavation is destruction" – to demonstrate how advances in archaeological practice suggest a new iteration: "excavation is digitization." Digitization, in a fully digital paradigm, refers to practices that leverage advances in onsite, image-based modeling and volumetric recording, integrated databases, and data sharing. Such practices were implemented in 2014 during the inaugural season of the Kaymakçi Archaeological Project (KAP) in western Turkey. The KAP recording system, developed from inception before excavation as a digital workflow, increases accuracy and efficiency as well as simplicity and consistency. The system also encourages both practical and conceptual advances in archaeological practice. These involve benefits associated with thinking volumetrically, rather than in two dimensions, and a connectivity that allows for group decision-making regardless of group location. Additionally, it is hoped that the system's use of almost entirely "off-the-shelf" solutions will encourage its adoption or at least its imitation by other projects. – [Publisher's abstract]
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Roskams, Steve
2001 Excavation
Cambridge (England): Cambridge University Press.
1.1.5
2.3.1
2.8.1
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     Chapter 2: Excavation in theory. Roskams defines excavation as 'disturbance of the ground in archaeologically controlled conditions' (p. 1). Roskams discusses the concept of 'total excavation' (the idea that if all of a site is exposed carefully, all its secrets will be revealed). Arguments against total excavation include 1) it is completely desctructive, so no later chance of verifying or reinvestigating, 2) it is physically impossible due to constantly improving techniques of excavation, 3) problem of defining the 'whole' site, and 4) the choice of excavation method makes total excavation impossible.
     Roskams makes a distinction between materials dug up and data: data is produced. Data is interpreted, which then gives rise to meaning or 'evidence' (p. 22). He considers the imposition of research objectives a potential rather than a problem, but agrees that specific research questions run the risk of igonoring other aspects and 'finding what is expected'. Observation is theory-laden but not theory-determined. Further, there is a need for interdisciplinary projects and excavations, but at the same time, there is also a need for 'archaeology itself to gain confidence', so that it can properly engage in discourse with other disciplines.
     Roskams notes that a greater range of methods in archaeology requires a greater fluidity of response (p. 34). – [Laerke Recht, February 2013]
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Rouse, Irving
1960 "The Classification of Artifacts in Archaeology"
in American Antiquity 25.3, pp. 313-323.
3.1
     An explicit overview of the classification of artifacts; Rouse systemizes concepts, definitions, and interpretations and explains the classification process in a schematic order in two consecutive stages: analytic and taxonomic. Analytic classification exclusively deals with cultural attributes (modes defined as a cultural unit), customs and is strictly defined by communal behaviors transmitted from one generation to another. The individual choices (mode) of the artisan may be included as well, but against the communal behavior they comprise only sporadic features. Rouse distinguishes two modes: 1) conceptual modes consisting of ideas and standards which the artisans expressed in the artifact and 2) procedural modes consisting of customs followed by the artisans in making and using of artifacts. Several issues, including technology, style and function may be identified at this stage. On the other hand, the taxonomic classification is concerned with the category of attributes that defines the types (defined as arbitrary units) of artifacts. Here as well the selection of attributes is only based on their cultural significance. Each taxonomic class is formed by two or more modes selected by the total number of modes obtained earlier from the analytic class. Rouse pays attention to other fields and thinks that their involvement may result in insights in the investigation of cultural change. Particularly, he focuses on the classification models of ethnography and language. – [Esmeralda Agolli, August 2014]
1972 Introduction to Prehistory: A Systematic Approach
New York: Mc Graw-Hill Book Company.
6.1
     The book offers an empirical discussion of the conceptual definition of prehistory and description of perceptions like cultural, morphological, social, ethnic and linguistic groups and artifacts. It discusses the dichotomy between holistic and topical disciplines and focuses particularly on archaeology (topical) and prehistory (holistic) and places them in a clearly defined research strategy that aims to deal with the totality of human activity in the past. The systematic approach puts the contextual location of artifacts, various types of records in a given stratigraphic unit, analysis of the data and the derivation of interpretations within a well-defined order.
     Rouse sees the site as an exclusively important entity from which data is yielded. For a particular stratigraphic unit, he employs several notions such as: primary, secondary, disturbed, undisturbed, context, excavation unit, spatial distribution and so on. The organization of the cultural remains is largely focused on classification of artifacts (or cultural remains) and the extent to which their organization contributes to the understanding of the archaeological context and the cultural unit to which they belong. Indeed, Rouse recognizes that the intuitive decisions one undertakes during the classification process are unavoidable and do interfere significantly with the objectivity of interpretations. According to him, however, quantitative applications to groups and patterns could remedy any intuitive decision during the process of classification.
     The classification system of cultural remains relies on three main divisions: 1) worked and unworked tools or artifacts - divided in terms of attributes of manufacture and use; for example houses, axes, and vessels. Based on their qualitative attributes, they are classified according to aesthetic and functional attributes; 2) classes and; 3) types which serve as derivations of one another. A class is a basic unit of archaeological research and the type is subsidiary to that unit (p. 50). Each class is defined by a cluster of attributes classified on the basis of morphological, descriptive, phonetic, natural and intrinsic properties. The types comprise 'patterns' of attributes encountered in a set of features that become subject of research (p. 51).
     A further attempt following the classification of cultural remains into classes and types regards their hierarchical organization into a bigger scheme, a process which is alternatively known as taxonomic classification, aiming to put several classes into systematic order (pp. 52, 53). – [Esmeralda Agolli, March 2014]
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Roveland, Blythe
2006 "Reflecting upon Archaeological Practice: Multiple Visions of a Late Paleolithic Site in Germany"
in Edgeworth 2006, pp. 56-67.
8.1
Th: excavation
     An example of an 'excavation of an excavation'. When excavating, we often come across trenches, backfill and other features from previous explorations, and here Roveland discusses how one might find the previous excavator through new excavations. – [Laerke Recht, October 2014]
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Rowan, Yorke M.; Uzi Baram
2004 Marketing Heritage: Archaeology and the Consumption of the Past
London: Altamira Press.
8.12
     This collection of essays presents case studies from around the world to illustrate a phenomenon that appears to have become more common in recent decades (although by no means a new phenomenon). That is, the use of archaeological sites for various agendas, often political and/or national in nature - "All of the contributors to this volume noticed in one way or another the ways in which archaeology and heritage are becoming commodities in the marketplace" (p. x). – [Laerke Recht, March 2017]
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Rowe, John
1991 "Stratigraphy and Seriation"
in American Antiquity 26.3, pp. 324-330.
2.3
15.10.4
15.10.5
Th: stratigraphy
     The paper is an important source based on the principles of stratigraphy in archaeology, offering cogent reflections on previous undertaking on the subject, coupled with a highly applicable guideline for the process of data collection. Rowe addresses basic concepts of archaeological stratigraphy and seriation and the extent to which they apply to the work of archaeologists in both the field and further data assessments. The objective understanding of both vertical and horizontal stratification and the relation of different deposits has crucial importance for the interpretation of any archaeological context. Rowe offers a valuable synopsis on the subject and it must be said that even with the most recent applications of this modern methodology, this papers remains applicable. – [Esmeralda Agolli, May 2013]
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Rush, Fred
2004 The Cambridge Companion to Critical Theory
Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
15.3
     This book is a collection of papers on critical theory, especially in its philosophical contexts. The diversity of critical theory and difficulty of exact definitions or limits of what constitues critical theory are emphasised ("Critical Theory exhibits a diversity among its proponents that both contributes to its richness and poses substantial barriers to understanding its significance", p. 1). The topic of the papers are presented in rough chronological order, beginning with the editor's own introduction to critical theory in the German philosophical intellectual environment of the Weimar Republic and important thinkers such as Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno. This early theory is described as "an account of the social forces of domination that takes its theoretical activity to be practically connected to the object of its study. In other words, Critical Theory is not merely descriptive, it is a way to instigate social change by providing knowledge of the forces of social inequality that can, in turn, inform political action aimed at emancipation" (p. 9). The first paper also outlines some of the strong Marxist and Kantian influences on early critical theory, in particular Kant's "critical philosophy" of reason and his dialectic.
     The book ends with a paper by Axel Honneth, who discusses the continued importance and influence of critical theory today. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Ryan, Marie-Laure
2002 "Beyond Myth and Metaphor: Narrative in Digital Media"
in Poetics Today 23.4, pp. 581-609.
11.5.1
     Interesting paper about the use of narrative as a metaphor in digital media. The author demonstrates different ways in which the user/reader is cast as part of a narrative when e.g. using their computer, software programmes, playing a game or visiting a website. This method is created by developers to make the user feel comfortable and familiar with new media ("computers are ugly, fearsome, inhuman, and they make people feel inadequate; it is therefore necessary to hide them behind a metaphor that will make them pass for something else", p. 583). Use of the UGR could be seen as such a narrative, where certain parameters are introduced, but from these the user/reader can choose their own, non-linear narrative (both in physical terms in which links they choose to follow, but also in the 'story' provided by the data consulted). – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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Sabloff, Jeremy
2005 "Processual Archaeology"
in Renfrew & Bahn 2005, pp. 159-164.
2.8.2
Th: excavation
     Good outline of processual archaeology, its challenges and continued development and application. Also with references to related concepts such as culture change, middle range theory and ethnoarchaeology. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Sackett, James R.
1977 "The Meaning of Style in Archaeology: A General Model"
in American Antiquity 42, pp. 369-380.
7.6
     An important synthesis on style, Sackett breaks through traditional considerations that impose static, descriptive and particularistic agendas on style. Along the same lines as Wobst (1977), style is viewed as a complementary element within others comprised of the attributes of an object, not necessarily peculiar or special. In contrast with Wobst, however, Sackett maintains a closer connection with archaeological data, not exclusively focused on functional parameters. To Sackett, style is a pervasive element intertwined with the entire entity of an object, simultaneously serving as representation of various realms: technological, economic, social, ideational and so on. Stylistic choices per se can be simply aesthetic or iconographic, but their embodiment within a particular item attaches to the latter a particular meaning which it defines by enlarging its usage and status. – [Esmeralda Agolli, June 2014]
1989 "Style and Ethnicity in Archaeology: The Case for Isochrestism"
in M. Conkey & C. Hastorf (eds.), The Uses of Style in Archaeology, pp. 32-43.
     Sackett's isochrestism approaches style by means of the range of decisions which had to be made in order for an object to come into being. For Sackett, style resides primarily (but not exclusively) in the 'adjunct' form – those aspects not fundamental for the intended function of the object. This is not to say that style and function can be separated – on the contrary, Sackett gives examples of their unity. The tie between style and ethnicity is discussed, as well as the active and passive role that style has in communicating ethnic attribution. Sackett ends with some points of clarification, referring to earlier criticisms by Binford and Wiessner. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Sagan, Carl; F.D. Drake; Ann Druyan; Timothy Ferris; Jon Lomberg; Linda Slzman Sagan
1978 Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record
New York: Ballantine Books, 1979.
2.4.2
15.6
16.3.1
16.6.3
     An incisive account of a major astronomical project that is indirectly relevant for our concerns. In 1977, Carl Sagan and a group of colleagues gathered to identify a series of features they deemed to be representative of the many cultural traditions of planet earth. The results were placed on two golden disks aboard two spacecrafts called Voyager, with the stated intent to present them to potential extraterrestrials who may come in contact with the disk (the "golden record"). (At Link 1 (below) one will find a description, based on this book, of the "golden record" launched as a "bottle into the cosmic ocean.") The notion of thus defining a "canon" is in itself very ambitious, but what is particularly interesting is the underlying assumption that such memorialization could (a) be accessible [grammatically] to analysts wholly alien to our expressive mechanisms, and (b) open up [hermeneutically] the deeper meaning which we [within our traditions] recognize instinctively.
     It would appear at first to be a reverse kind of archaeological reason and of the pertinent hermeneutics: we want to give an interpretive key to individuals who are alien to our culture. The conviction is expressed that this represented "a good means for reliable communication without prior contact. We need not fear a linguistic problem when we encounter other civilizations" (p. 56). In fact, a particularly interesting aspect of the book is the presence of what I would call a "grammar" for the decipherment of the "golden record" itself. A succinct version is given on pp. 36-37 (reproduced verbatim in Link 2, below): this "grammar" is explicitly intended for the benefit of a potential "extraterrestrial recipient of the Voyager spacecraft." And a full description of the conceptual presuppositions of this "very great intellectual and technical goal: contact with an extraterrestrial civilization" (p. 46), is given in chapter 2, "The Foundations of the Voyager Record," by F.D. Drake.
     [In point of fact, then, the golden record carries only the grammar that would allow access to the information. For the hermeneutic dimension we fall back to the notion of archaeological reason. An analysis along these lines would have to consider the data collected (messages, music, pictures) in and of themselves, without, however, the benefit of a broadly based distributional analysis, and with the added handicap of not knowing the nature of the filter (Sagan and his group) that made the selection in the first place.]
     Link 1: http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/goldenrec.html [Accessed February 2016]
     Link 2: http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/goldenrec_more.html) [Accessed February 2016] – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
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Salmon, Merrilee H.
1976 "'Deductive' Versus 'Inductive' Archaeology"
in American Antiquity 41.3, pp. 376-381.
     Salmon suggests that while archaeologists say that they do use both inductive and deductive methods in understanding the archaeological record, the presentation of conclusions by archaeologists is more apt to be inductive even though the methodological underpinnings are often more complicated that the archaeologist communicates in publications. – [Heidi Dodgen, April 2013]
1978 "What Can Systems Theory Do for Archaeology?"
in American Antiquity 43.2, pp. 174-183.
15.13
     What can systems theory do for Archaeology? The paper challenges the relevance of systems theory for archaeology and how some key concepts easily intertwined and applied in other fields cannot optimally interfere with this discipline. Initially, it offers a narrative description of various types of systems: physical (divided in living and non-living systems) and non-physical (linguistic, socio-cultural and so on). Then, it defines two main categories of knowledge: 1) synchronic, which may be of the structure or interrelationships among components of the system; and 2) diachronic, which may consist of a complex entity in terms of its behavior.
     Salmon strongly criticizes the notions of General Systems Theory as represented by Miller (1965:397), which underlines that (Hypothesis 3.3.7 2-17): "a system cannot survive unless it makes decisions that maintain the functions of all its subsystems at a sufficiently high efficiency and their costs at a sufficiently low level that there are more than enough resources to keep it operating satisfactorily". With this particular definition Salmon notes the considerable passive voice given to the main actors of the system, the human behavior. An abstract system cannot serve as a deterministic factor in any type of transformation, especially when culture participates actively in it.
     Salmon brings the application of General Systems Theory closer to archaeology, dealing especially with two distinguished applications, those of Kent Flannery and David Clarke. In both cases, however, she claims that despite the eloquent interpretations, the relevance of GST and especially borrowed concepts of cybernetics and mathematics cannot be so straightforwardly applied to the process of cultural change and human behavior. – [Esmeralda Agolli, August 2014]
1982 Philosophy and Archaeology
New York: Academic Press.
7.1
15.13
     The book offers an interesting synthesis of the ramifications of philosophy on archaeological knowledge. A great emphasis is given to the conceptualization of high-level theory and the extent to which it benefits from the discipline. It initially offers a historical overview of some salient approaches that marry the philosophy of science with archaeology, mainly through hypothetico-deductive and deductive-nomological models. In seven chapters, the laws and confirmation in archaeology are discussed extensively along with analogy and functional ascription, functional explanation and the structure of archaeological explanation. – [Esmeralda Agolli, June 2014]
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Sartre, Jean-Paul
1960 Critique de la raison dialectique (précédé de Question de méthode)
Tome I. Théorie des ensembles pratiques. Paris: Librairie Gallimard.
English translation of Part 2: Critique of Dialectical Reason. Volume I. Theory of Practical Ensembles, translated by Alan Sheridan-Smith, edited by Jonathan Rée, foreword by Fredric Jameson. London: Verso, 2004 (first published in 1976).
15.1
15.2
Excerpts
     A particularly insightful foreword, and a very useful editorial subdivision of the main text into subchapters that make reading much easier than in the rather cumbersome original. The book consists in effect of three very uneven parts. (1) The section entitled Question de méthode, written in 1957 and originally entitled "Existentialisme et Marxisme,", pp. 13-111. (2) The section properly entitled Critique de la raison dialectique, pp. 113-755. This section that is conceived as Volume 1 of a series that was not continued. (3) A very brief (pp. 9-11) preface to both sections, where it is said that part 2 should logically appear as part 1. (This preface appears in the English translation cited above as an annexe, on pp. 821-824.) – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2014]
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Scarre, Chris
2005 The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies
London: Thames & Hudson.
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Scarre, G.
2006 "Can Archaeology Harm the Dead?"
in C. Scarre & G. Scarre (eds.), The Ethics of Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, pp. 181-198.
     Scarre considers the ethics of dealing with dead remains; his argument discusses not only the wishes of the dead, but also the desires and obligation of their descendants. He uses the discussion of “Cambridge changes” to understand how the dead are affected by archaeologists' treatment, and why such changes should be considered when discussing ethics. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Schapiro, M.
1953 "Style"
in A.L. Kroeber (ed.), Anthropology Today, Chicago, pp. 287-312.
     In this fundamental article, Schapiro defines Style as “the constant form – and sometimes constant elements, qualities, and expression – in the art of an individual or a group.” (p.51) He then goes on to modify this definition based on who studies style: archaeologist, historian of art, historian of culture, and the critic. Concepts such as individual vs. group, dominant vs. marginal, variation vs. commonality, and evolutionist vs. cyclical models of artistic development. After a practical examination of stylistic analysis, Schapiro ends with a discussion of the relationship between objects and the social life surrounding their production and use. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Schiering, W.
1969 "Begriff und Methode der Archaeologie"
in U. Hausmann (ed.), Allgemeine Grundlagen der Archäologie, pp. 11-49.
     Schiering presents the history of the field as seen through important personalities in archaeology, with a particular (and correct) emphasis on Winkelmann. The founding of the Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica is also discussed, as well as its transformation to its modern face, the Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Schiffer, Michael B.
1985 "Is There a 'Pompeii Premise' in Archaeology?"
in Journal of Anthropological Research 41, pp. 18-41.
     This article is an exploration of behavioral archaeoligical approaches and how these approaches affect the way in which archaeologists understand the emplacement and deposition of artifacts. This article highlights the discussion on emplacement and deposition that Buccellati touches upon in the primary definition of archaeology. – [Heidi Dodgen, February 2013]
1987 Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
4.2
15.10.4
2013 The Archaeology of Science: Studying the Creation of Useful Knowledge
Heidelberg and New York: Springer.
Preface
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Schiffer, Michael B.; James M. Skibo
1997 "The Explanation of Artifact Variability"
in American Antiquity 62, pp. 27-50.
3.1
2008 People and Things: A Behavioral Approach to Material Culture
New York: Springer.
16.1
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Schindler, David C.
2008 Plato's Critique of Impure Reason: On Goodness and Truth in the Republic
Washington: Catholic University of America Press.
15.2
     Plato's Critique of Impure Reason offers a dramatic interpretation of the Republic, at the center of which lies a novel reading of the historical person of Socrates as the "real image" of the good. Schindler argues that a full response to the attack on reason introduced by Thrasymachus at the dialogue's outset awaits the revelation of goodness as the cause of truth. This revelation is needed because the good is what enables the mind to know and makes things knowable. When we read Socrates' display of the good against the horizon of the challenges posed by sophistry, otherwise disparate aspects of Plato's masterpiece turn out to play essential roles in the production of an integrated whole.
     In this book, D. C. Schindler begins with a diagnosis of the crisis of reason in contemporary culture as a background to the study of the Republic. He then sets out a philosophical interpretation of the dialogue in five chapters: an analysis of Book 1 that shows the inherent violence and dogmatism of skepticism; a reading of goodness as cause of both being and appearance; a discussion of the dramatic reversals in the images Socrates uses for the idea of the good; an exploration of the role of the person of Socrates in the Republic; and a confrontation between the "defenselessness" of philosophy and the violence of sophistry. Finally, in a substantial coda, the book presents a new interpretation of the old quarrel between philosophy and art through an analysis of Book 10.
     Though based on a close reading of the text, Plato's Critique of Impure Reason always interprets the arguments with a view to fundamental human problems, and so will be valuable not only to Plato scholars but to any reader with general philosophical interests. – [Publisher's summary]
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Schmidt, Robert A.; Barbara L. Voss (eds.)
2000 Archaeologies of Sexuality
London and New York: Routledge.
     Archaeologies of Sexuality is the first volume to explore this original archaeological research and meet the challenges of integrating the study of sex and sexuality within archaeology. It presents a strong, diverse body of scholarship, investigating locations as varied as medieval England, the ancient Mayan civilizations, New Kingdom Egypt, prehistoric Europe, prehistoric as well as colonial and Victorian North America, and convict-era Australia. Above all, this work demonstrates that variability in sexual expression is not solely a modern phenomenon. Sexuality has been an important and changing ingredient of human social life for thousands of years. – [Publisher's summary]
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Schrödinger, Ervin
2014 Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism
Cambridge: Cambridge Unviersity Press.
Nature and the Greeks first published in 1954.
Science and humanism first published in 1951.
     Nobel laureate Erwin Schrödinger was one of the most distinguished scientists and philosophers of the twentieth century, and his lectures are legendary. Here the texts of two of Schrödinger's most famous lecture series are made available again. In the first, entitled "Nature and the Greeks," Schrödinger offers a historical account of the scientific world picture. In the second, called "Science and Humanism," he addresses fundamental questions about the link between scientific and spiritual matters. As Roger Penrose confirms, these are the profound thoughts of a great mind, and as relevant today as when they were first published in the 1950s. – [Publisher's summary]
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Schuyler, Robert L.
1971 "The History of American Archaeology: An Examination of Procedure"
in American Antiquity 36.4, pp. 383-409.
2.1
     An interesting overview of the history of archaeology in the American environment! It goes beyond any schematic order that defines the historiography of the discipline with sharply divided borders like the pioneer-speculative (1492-1847), pioneer-scientific (1847-1916), and developed scientific and synthetic-anthropological (1916-present); or another comprised by three periods: pioneer or preparatory, descriptive, and the so-called 'stratigraphic revolution'. Schuyler sees such considerations as highly incomplete, superficial and arbitrary in nature. Instead, with a rather controversial emphasis, he considers four particular situations which at best indicate that the discipline did not necessarily grow in one direction or another.
     On the contrary, even during the earliest stage, archaeology went through a phase during which speculation, systematic research and professionalism all developed cohesively. Moreover, what is referred to as a 'speculative' stage cannot only be considered unprofessional and dilettante, but must be viewed as an era that created a plethora of evidence with immense potential for further treatment and analysis. In generic terms, Schuyler sees that archaeology in the United States at its incipient stage takes more of a humanistic and quantitative versus the sociological orientation, but he claims that it is quite difficult to evaluate whether the further development of the New Archaeology was an evolutionary derivation of the initial stage or an innovative effort that took place with the industrialization and the social movements in the country. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
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Seamon, David (ed.)
1990- Environmental and Architectural Phenomenology
A newsletter, online at http://newprairiepress.org/eap/
16.3.4
     An interesting newsletter concerned with "design, education, and policy supporting and enhancing natural and built environments that are beautiful, alive, and humane. Realizing that a clear conceptual stance is integral to informed research and design, the editor is most interested in phenomenological approaches but also gives attention to related styles of qualitative research." It does pay attention to archaeology (e.g., in issue 26/2 it contains an insightful review of Tilley 2010 Interpreting Landscapes) and is relevant for our concerns in terms of perceptual analysis. – [Giorgio Buccellati, June 2017]
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Shackel, Paul A.; Erve J. Chambers (eds.)
2004 Places in Mind: Public Archaeology as Applied Anthropology
New York and London: Routledge.
8.12
     In this volume on public archaeology, the field is understood as engagement with and empowerment of local (often "subordinate"/minority) communities. Case studies from around the world are presented - particularly with the aim of representing groups other than Native Americans, which most often occur in such discussions.
     The emphasis is here on multivocallity, and multiple histories where the perspective of the archaeologist does not necessarily take precedence and where minority groups are given a chance to tell their stories, "All the authors in this book provide a voice to communities that have been underrepresented in official histories. They are working with these subordinated groups to give them a voice in how their past is created" (p. 3). In the introduction, Shackel also discusses the close ties between archaeology and politics, and how stories of the past are told for ideological/political purposes. So-called 'consensus histories' (what could also be called univocal history) serve to marginalise and even hide certain groups, which are thus deliberately forgotten or erased.
     The discussions and endeavours in this book are most admirable and show the importance of engaging with a variety of 'stakeholders'. What seems to be lacking, however, is an awareness of the dangers of giving equal weight to all 'stories' and an attention to the limit of the kinds of stories that can be told based on the material culture. – [Laerke Recht, November 2016]
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Shanks, Michael
1996 "Style and the Design of a Perfume Jar from an Archaic Greek City State"
in Preucel & Hodder (eds.), Contemporary Archaeology in Theory, pp. 364-393.
     Shanks approaches a proto-Korinthian Aryballos from a perspective different from what he calls that of the 'connoisseurs' – an approach which focuses on the “minute and particular detail” and has a strong non-verbal component of understanding by the 'connoisseur'. Shanks' approach, in contrast, delves first into the individuality of the pot, looking at elements such as the risk inherent in the incision-technique. He then moves on to the iconography, discussing the character of the monsters (such as a centaur, who is both man and animal) as well as the expression of violence which is so prevalent on Aryballoi. He defines binary pairs, starting with the male/female dichotomy, and finishes with a broader discussion of the Aryballoi and proto-Korinthian in general. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Shanks, Michael; Chrisopher Tilley
1992 Re-Constructing Archaeology: Theory and Practice2
Second edition (first edition 1987).
London: Routledge.
1.1.3
2.2.1
4.1
7.6
8.12
9.8
10.3.5
15.7
16.6
16.7
Th: broken traditions
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Sheehan, Kim Bartel
2002 "Of Surfing, Searching, and Newshounds: A Typology of Internet Users' Online Sessions"
in Journal of Advertising Research 42.5, pp. 62-71.
11.3.4
     The paper examines different types of online activity and the motivations behind them using a set number of individuals. The users and activities are divided into different 'types', especially with a focus on how they respond to online advertising. – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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Shott, Michael
2014 "Digitizing Archaeology: A Subtle Revolution in Analysis"
in World Archaeology 46.1, pp. 1-9.
11.6
     This paper on digital archaeology looks at the use of 3D modelling in archaeology. The application of 3D modelling for artefact analysis has marked advantages over 2D analysis (without making this obsolete, however). It treats the artefact as a complex object and allows for much greater detail concerning e.g. dimensions and comparison within and across assemblages. The archaeologist making this type of analysis must also consider issues of preservation and how to archive both the 'raw' data and the finished model.
     The author suggests the use of 3D modelling of artefacts as a solution for museums and the archiving of and access to objects in private collections. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Simandiraki-Grimshaw, Anna; Eleni Stefanou (eds.)
2012 From Archaeology to Archaeologies: The 'Other' Past
BAR International Series 2409.
Oxford (England): Archaeopress.
8.12
     This book is a collection of essays on 'alternative' archaeology vs 'mainstream' or 'scientific' archaeology, including such aspects as pseudoarchaeology, conspiracy theories, extraterrestrial, shamanism and so on. The papers discuss nationalism, colonialism and imperialist tendencies in archaeological research, along with archaeological paradigms, archaeological narratives and popular ways of understanding the past. It also touches on the consumption of archaeological discourses through nationalist politics, media, performances, and collective rituals. – [Laerke Recht, February 2013]
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Simmel, Georg
1913 Kant: Sechzehn Vorlesungen gehalten an der Berliner Universität3
München & Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.
14.12
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Sini, Carlo
2012 Il sapere dei segni: Filosofia e semiotica.
Milano: Jaca Book.
2.6.1
     A philosophical essay that takes seriously the evidence from prehistoric representational figures, accepting their interpretation by Anati and Gimbutas as full-fledged writing systems (with which interpretation I disagree). But what is of interest for our argument is Sini's understanding of grammar as a "science of elementary classes and foundation of all the (western) 'atomizing' science; a unity of analysis and synthesis going from the elements to the whole" (p. 38, my translation). – [Giorgio Buccellati, June 2013]
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Smith, Bruce D.
1977 "Archaeological Inference and Inductive Confirmation"
in American Anthropologist 79.3, pp. 598-617.
2.2.3
2.8.2
15.13
15.3
     The paper offers a processualist perspective, written when this approach was highly popular in the Anglo-Saxon environment. The discussion focuses on scientific confirmation and archaeological inference. It challenges the Hypothetico-Deductive (H-D) method, implying that its logical concepts and application pose serious problems to archaeology. This is a clear criticism of Binford's approach to the H-D application. With Salmon, Smith agrees that the relationship between observational prediction and alternative hypothesis is such that it narrows down to more than one possible true/possible hypothesis. Hence, the assignment of the most possible alternative remains a subjective decision. Another limitation regards its evasiveness. The H-D method does not provide clear guidelines as to which among the alternative hypotheses has the highest degree of objectivity.
     Considering the given limitations, Smith favors the so-called Hypothetico-Analog (H-A) method of Inductive Confirmation. Above all, this methodology avoids the deduction from a hypothesis, inferring instead a chain process known alternatively as the plausibility consideration, which through inductive observations pursues the prior probability and other measurements through testing implications. – [Esmeralda Agolli, June 2014]
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Smith, Michael E.
2015 "How Can Archaeologists Make Better Arguments?"
The SAA Archaeological Record, September 2015.
1.2
2.2.3
     The author here expresses a discontent with the way archaeologists argue, in particular when using 'high theory'. Because of archaeology's placement between humanities and the sciences, it is assumed that rigorous scientitic methods and testing are not applicable. However, Smith thinks that we should apply at least some version of Popperian falsifiability to our arguments: that is, we should be able to tell when we are wrong. Steps towards doing this includes not using what Smith calls 'ad hoc analogies' (analogies chosen more or less at random from anywhere in the world, rather than those more narrowly relevant and supportive of the data at hand) or 'empty citations' (that is, roughly speaking, referring to others expressing arguments similar to your own, rather than actual data strengthening the case).
     Smith instead suggests the use of 'strong inference', where multiple hypotheses are tested, and the last one standing being most likely to be correct. In this process, middle-range theory (in the sense used by Merton, not Binford) is more useful than high level theory, because high level theory is much more difficult to "prove wrong" - it is simply too abstract for testing. – [Laerke Recht, November 2015]
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Smith, R.E.
1974 "Ethics in Field Archaeology"
in Journal of Field Archaeology 1.3/4, pp. 375-383.
     Smith outlines a suggestion for a code of ethics for archaeologists, presenting not only portions of the code being proposed, but also presenting common arguments against those proposals. The proposals are categorized in four groups: those for archaeologists in general, those for sponsors, those for field directors and those for field staff. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Snodgrass, A. M.
1985 "The New Archaeology and the Classical Archaeologist"
in American Journal of Archaeology 89, pp. 31-37.
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Snyder, Ilana
1998 Page to Screen: Taking Literacy Into the Electronic Era
London and New York: Psychology Press.
12.5
     Essays on changes in literacy practices due to electronic developments from educators' point of view. – [Laerke Recht, February 2017]
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Sobel, D.
1995 Longitude
New York: Penguin.
12.7
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Sokolowski, Robert
2000 Introduction to Phenomenology
Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
15.11.3
2008 Phenomenology of the Human Person
New York: Cambridge University Press.
2.6.1
12.6.6
     The first part of the book: The Form of Thinking (pp. 7-96), deals with the notion of syntax understood as categoriality (p. 45) and viewed as an inter-subjective activity that defines human reasoning. The author develops extensively the topic of "absence" and "displacement" (e.g. p. 75) as the moment when something not physically present is made so by means of logically connected words: this relates to the concept of non-contiguity seen as an important aspect of digital thought. An aspect of syntax that is stressed is that of nesting (e.g. p. 36) and stacking (e.g. p. 73); along with the notion of manifold (p. 53f), they can be linked with the conceptual dimension of the hyperlinks, and the topic of words carrying the built-in dimension of a phrase (p. 48), which can be linked to the notion of implicit tagging as derived from a grammatical structure. – [Giorgio Buccellati, March 2013]
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Spaulding, C. Albert
1953 "Statistical Techniques for the Discovery of Artifact Types"
in American Antiquity 18, pp. 305-313.
3.1
     The paper marks a seminal effort on the application of quantitative methods to archaeological data; not an easy combination. Spaulding very keenly applies a strategy that employs statistical concepts like population, random samples, and sampling error to the archaeological data, intending to achieve tested results and solid interpretations. A strategy that was later highly criticized by Ammerman (1992).
     The statistical operations rely on a pre-classified group of data based on artifact types which are defined as: a group of artifacts exhibiting a consistent assemblage of attributes whose combined properties give a characteristic pattern. Spaulding attempts to test the hypothesis through chi-square analysis. In most cases, patterns assumed prior to the calculations for their various qualitative attributes offer only a few significant and reliable results. Despite this, however, Spaulding gives great confidence to these applications. – [Esmeralda Agolli, September 2014]
1982 "Structure in Archaeological Data: Nominal Variables"
in Whallon & Brown 1982, pp. 1-20.
3.5.2
     The paper considers the very basics, focused solely on the classification of nominal variables in archaeological data and their relation to human behavior. It follows a structural approach, dealing in particular with the significance of variables and their impact within the structure of a given type.
     Spaulding coherently combines the conceptual definitions of variables with the statistical implications of two or more variables. The arbitrary and intuitive decisions in the classification process are unequivocally recognized and the particular attention given to the conceptual categorization of variables into nominal, ordinal, interval and ration scales is due to such a problem. Spaulding makes a clear distinction between variables and attributes, indicating their close integration. Thus, a variable is defined as a measuring instrument of one kind or scale; the nominal variables on the other hand are sets of mutually exclusive properties called attributes or qualities. The concern with nominal variables has two reasons: 1) many of our observations are inescapably in the nominal mode and 2) makers and users of archaeological artifacts operate in the nominal mode (p. 5). Intending to focus exclusively on the properties of the data, Spaulding ignores the contingency tables and suggests the application of frequency distribution (equaprobability) for the evaluation of variables.
     The second part deals with the investigation of relations within a structure and to what extent the so called intuitive, purely formal and impurely formal types can be designated. Here he deals mostly with the significance of the combination of attributes (two or more variables) with their corresponding types within the structure of data. – [Esmeralda Agolli, March 2014]
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Starzmann, Maria Theresia; John R. Roby
2016 Excavating Memory: Sites of Remembering and Forgetting
Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Project MUSE [accessed 15 Feb. 2016].
9.8
     In this compelling study, Maria Theresia Starzmann and John Roby bring together an international cast of experts who move beyond the traditional framework of the "constructed past" to look at not only how the past is remembered but also who remembers it. They convincingly argue that memory is a complex process, shaped by remembering and forgetting, inscription and erasure, presence and absence. Collective memory influences which stories are told over others, ultimately shaping narratives about identity, family, and culture. – This interdisciplinary volume--melding anthropology, archaeology, sociology, history, philosophy, literature, and archival studies--explores such diverse arenas as archaeological objects, human remains, colonial landscapes, public protests, national memorials, art installations, testimonies, and even digital space as places of memory. Examining important sites of memory, including the Victory Memorial to Soviet Army, Blair Mountain, Spanish penitentiaries, African shrines, and the U.S.-Mexico borderlands, the contributors highlight the myriad ways communities reinforce or reinterpret their pasts. – [Publisher's summary]
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Steadman, Sharon K.
1996 "Recent Research in the Archaeology of Architecture: Beyond the Foundations"
in Journal of Archaeological Research 4.1, pp. 51-93.
15.10.5
     A very good survey of architectural analysis in archaeology. The author offers a wealth of references for further study and application of architectural analysis. Such analyses can be used to examine not only economic status and relations, but also social structure, gender and labour divisions and symbolic/religious aspects. The archaeology of architecture includes or is related to settlement archaeology, household archaeology, and spatial analysis. For example, it has been shown that in general, there is a connection between larger households and more complex tasks - which in turn suggest a more complex society.
     One of the recent developments in the field also includes the use of semiotics, which in particular helps interpret the relation between architecture and behaviour, "The basic concept underlying the use of semiotics in architectural analysis is that buildings represent a system of communication through culturally (and sometimes cross-culturally) recognized signs and symbols. This system of meanings, interpreted in an architectural context, prompts the appropriate behavior for that particular space" (p. 66). Related to this [and of interest in the context of the discussion of movable and immovable items in CAR] is the use of "fixed" and "semi-fixed feature elements" (e.g. furniture) to create and identify spaces. – [Laerke Recht, November 2016]
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Stein, Edith
1989 On the Problem of Empathy
The Collected Works of Edith Stein 3. Translated by Waltraut Stein.
Washington, D.C.: ICS Publications.
Page numbers below refer to the second edition, 1970 (Martinus Niijhoff, The Hague)
16.9.1
     Edith Stein was an assistant of Husserl and edited much of his work. This book is thus firmly within the phenomenological tradition and strongly influenced by Husserl. It treats a particular aspect of Husserl's work in depth, that of empathy. Analysed as a phenomenological reduction or bracketing, Stein defines empathy as "acts in which foreign experience is grasped" (p. 6; see also p. 11). Empathy is what she characterises as a primordial act with non-primordial content. That is, the given perception of another person's experience of, for example, pain, is primary, while the pain itself is "secondary", not directly given. – [Laerke Recht, March 2017]
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Stein, Julie K.
2005 "Principles of Stratigraphic Succession"
in Renfrew & Bahn 2005, pp. 181-185.
Th: stratigraphy
     Short outline and discussion of the role of stratigraphy in archaeology, its different historical pathways and association with other dating methods such as seriation. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Stewart, Iain
2011 "Sartre, Aron and the Contested Legacy of the Anti-Positivist Turn in French Thought, 1938-1960"
in Sartre Studies International 17, pp. 41-60.
15.1
     Taking as its starting point recent claims that Jean-Paul Sartre's Critique de la Raison Dialectique was written as an attempt to overcome the historical relativism of Raymond Aron's Introduction à la philosophie de l'histoire, the present article traces this covert dialogue back to a fundamental disagreement between the two men over the interpretation of Wilhelm Dilthey's anti-positivist theory of Verstehen or "understanding." In so doing it counters a longstanding tendency to emphasise the convergence of Aron and Sartre's philosophical interests prior to the break in their friendship occasioned by the onset of the Cold War, suggesting that the causes of their later, radical political divergence were pregnant within this earlier philosophical divergence. [This is particularly interesting in view of the fact that Sartre does not refer to Dilthey in the Critique or to Dilthey's initial plan to work on a Critique of Historical Reason.] – [Author's abstract]
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Stone, Peter G.; Philippe G. Planel (eds.)
1999 The Constructed Past: Experimental Archaeology, Education and the Public
London and New York: Routledge
9.4
     We can never know with certainty what the past was like: instead we reconstruct images of what we think it may have been like using the fragmentary remains we have, but influenced to a degree by our cultural perceptions and norms. Those who present the past to others have the responsibility to ensure that they represent the most likely reality of the past, and that the representations are not conscious manipulations of the past created for particular contemporary causes. This edited collection presents a group of powerful images of the past, termed in the book 'construction sites'. At these sites, full scale, threedimensional images for the past have been created for a variety of reasons including archaeological experimentation, tourism and education. Some sites attempt little more than construction of unfurnished buildings, others introduce furniture, other artefacts and human interpreters to recreate a more detailed image of the past. The various case studies explore the relationship between the sites' aims and discuss their constant friction. Contributions frankly discuss the problems and mistakes experienced with reconstruction, encourage the need for on-going experimentation and examine the various uses of the sites; political, economical and educational. – [Publisher's blurb]
     A good geographical spread is represented by the papers in this book (the UK, USA, Japan, Ireland, Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands, South Africa and Russia). It focusses on how the past is represented in what are usually called reconstructions. This refers to experimental archaeology and, for example, houses or structures entirely reconstructed on a site other than the original for educational/tourist purposes. The terms 'construction/constructed' are preferred to acknowledge that we are dealing with new constructions, and can never truly reconstruct something exactly as it was. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Stueber, Karsten
2014 "Empathy"
in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Winter 2014 edition.
Online at Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive [Accessed 2 Aug 2016]
16.9.1
     Good overview and discussion about the concept of empathy and its history as used in philosophy and psychology. In philosophy, it has been important for some phenomenologists and their thoughts on intersubjectivity, but it has especially played a role in theories about morality and ethics. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Tani, M.
1995 "Beyond the Identification of Formation Processes"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 2.3, pp. 231-52.
4.4
     Tani explores how formation processes suggest the behavior of those who left artifacts behind in the archaeolgical record. The behaviors of the people living there could be inferred from the emplacement of the artifact in order to reconstruct its deposition. This article could be used to illustrate the difference between deposition and emplacement. – [Heidi Dodgen, February 2013]
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Thomas, J.
1993 "The Hermeneutics of Megalithic Space"
in Christopher Tilley (ed.), Interpretative Archaeology, pp. 73-97.
     Thomas discusses the Megalithic concept of space as seen through the hermeneutic method: the perception of space by hunters and gatherers must have been in some way mediated by a common understanding, so that interaction with place and each other remained meaningful in a context where most of their material world would have traveled with them. He uses the example of megalithic tombs to explore the 'reading' of these structures, as well as their 'writing' by those who built them. The message becomes more complicated, and thus more specific as the cultures develop. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Thomas, J.; Christopher Tilley
1992 "TAG and Post-modernism: A Reply to John Bintliff"
in Antiquity 66, pp. 106-114.
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Thomason, Allison Karmel
2016 "The Sense-Scapes of Neo-Assyrian Capital Cities: Royal Authority and Bodily Experience"
in Cambridge Archaeological Journal 26, pp. 243-264.
16.3.4
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Thomsen, Christian Jürgensen
1836 Ledetraad til Nordisk Oldkyndighed
Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskriftsselskab.
Guide to Northern Antiquities, translated into English in 1848.
2.3
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     The purpose of this book was to inform people about the past of their own people, the objects and the sites - Thomsen argued that it is necessary to know the past in order to understand the present, and that the knowledge will help prevent the destruction or loss of antiquities and ancient sites. Previous scholarship focused on written sources of the past, and whereas this study also includes an overview of the oldest written records from the Nordic countries, Thomsen emphasises the importance of material remains and offers a detailed account of those found in museum collections, classed by type and material. These have the advantage over written sources of not being subject to the same degree of tranformation through repetition in various forms, and allows us in a more direct manner to 'walk with the ancestors and live their lives again' (p. 27, my translation).
     Thomsen divides the material into the chronological three-phase system of Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages, which has been so influential ever since. He clarifies that the limits of the periods are not strict and subject to continued revision as more is learned about the past.
     He further introduces a kind of typology, suggesting careful examination of the shape of objects and development of spiral decoration to assign them to a specific period. In his short guide to excavation, he encourages meticulous recording of the association of finds within contexts, the need to keep bones of both humans and animals, to record the sex of human skeletons, along with a note on how different types of material are affected by the soil and notes that objects should not be cleaned too much as this may cause damage. – [Laerke Recht, July 2013]
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Tilley, Christopher
1989 "Interpreting Material Culture"
in Ian Hodder (ed.), The Meaning of Things, pp. 185-194.
     Tilley presents an analysis of structuralism's effect on archaeological theory, looking at Saussure, Levi-Strauss and Barthes in particular. The use of structuralism in archaeology is then examined on a general level. Derrida's criticism of structuralist also has its echos in archaeology, refuting the claim that signifier and signified are a fixed pairing. Finally, Tilley discusses writing about the past, and states: “The meaning of the past does not reside in the past, but belongs in the present.” The effect of this statement could have, when applied completely to archaeology, is then explored by Tilley. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
1990 Reading Material Culture: Structuralism, Hermeneutics and Post-Structuralism
Oxford: Blackwell.
1990 "Michel Foucault: Towards an Archaeology of Archaeology"
in Tilley 1990a, pp. 281-346.
11.5.1
15.13
16.7
1991 "Materialism and an Archaeology of Dissonance"
in Scottish Archaeological Review 8, pp. 14-22.
     Tilley argues in this article that “scientific archaeology embraces a hopeless idealism and leads us to an impasse in which we simply cannot hope to make sense of the past.” This is to counter claims by New Archaeologists and others who define Post-Processual archaeology as hopelessly relative and subjective, and as such lacking seriousness. Tilley argues that the plurality of 'labels' given to Post-Processual archaeology (Marxist, structuralist, hermeneutic, etc.) are its strength – that this plurality of approaches shows the wealth of possible 'meanings' in the archaeological record. He then gives nine 'theses' for materialism – these nine are, however, not to be considered a 'grand theory', but a foundation for this plurality of approaches. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
1997 A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments
Oxford: Berg.
2010 Interpreting Landscapes: Geologies, Topographies, Identities
Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press
16.3.4
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Trebsche, Peter
2009 "Does Form Follow Function? Towards a Methodical Interpretation of Archaeological Building Features"
in World Archaeology 41.3, pp.505-519.
6.3.4
     This paper examines some of the parametres that might determine the form of architectural structures. The aim is to be able to interpret the structures found in archaeological contexts, with parallels drawn from modern architecture and buildings. Contrary to what has been argued in some instances, function is not the only factor in determining a building's form - and this can easily be demonstrated emperically. Topography, symbolic meaning, material, 'fashion' etc are also factors. In archaeological terms, we must also consider the state of preservation of a structure, along with the material it was made of. Trebsche identifies five functional groups which may prove useful in archaeological interpretation: 1) basic needs, 2) economic function, 3) social function, 4) cultic function, and 5) symbolic function. The analysis presented applies equally to other archaeological features and artefacts - in fact to anything which includes typology or functional categories. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Trienes, Rudie
1989 "Type Concept Revisited: A Survey of German Idealistic Morphology in the First Half of the Twentieth Century"
in History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 11.13, pp. 23-42.
15.11.3
     An intriguing overview focused on the conceptual and theoretical development of the German Idealistic Morphology at the beginning of the 20th century. The paper discusses several important scholars defined as Idealists Morphologist with a background in Zoology and Anatomy, including Naef, Peter, Lubosch and Meyer. They attempted to not be contaminated by the relative purity of the Phylogeneteists, more specifically their influence from Darwin. Against this approach, they formulated a robust philosophical approach which adopted a great deal from Platonian philosophy and Kantian epistemology. Trienes treats five aspects of Idealistic Morphology: 1) the type concept versus descent theory, 2) the type concept and the concept of homology; 3) type concept and finality, 4) type concept and holism; and 5) the epistemological background of Idealist Morphology.
     Each topic deals with the attempts of the idealistic morphologists to free the discipline from the influence of phylogeny. For instance, Naef argued for an arrangement of organic forms according to their typological similarity. Type is understood as a concrete idea, a form which could only be thought and does not occur in nature. Naef saw the comparison between forms made possible by the Type Concept which then constructed the Sequences of Forms. This whole understanding has comprised the core of Idealistic Morphology. Its founders followed the same pattern as Platonism, where things are divided according to universal ideas. They claimed to record connections between types without any regard for genealogical hypotheses and called phylogeny naive, founded exclusively on the fantasy of the investigator who constructed the Genealogical trees.
     The Idealists Morphologists distinguished Concept Homology as a derivation of the Type Concept. Among others, Naef defined homology as the formal connection between certain parts of the total appearance of several similar organisms. Peter on the other hand, argued that homology had the logical function of a criterion to equate equivalent and therefore comparable types.
     Two crucial elements are defined with the type concept and finality: a) Differentiation not only meant the diverging of parts but also the occurrence of a multiplicity of same parts; and b) Centralization meant the process of existing parts taking up position centered around one or more points.
     Finally, the epistemological background of the IM succeeded in formulating a combination of Goethe, Planton and Kantian gnoseology. Moreover, they claimed to follow Neo-Kantian epistemology. Naef rejected the empirical approach to natural phenomena and, following Kant, stressed the necessity to create an order which transcends mere empirical reality by means of human rational faculties. – [Esmeralda Agolli, August 2014]
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Trigger, Bruce G.
1984 "Alternative Archaeologies: Nationalist, Colonialist, Imperialist"
in Man 19.3, pp. 355-370.
4.1
8.12
15.6
     Archaeological research is rooted in the social circumstance where it develops. To what extent has archaeology 'paid' dues to other agendas not immediately associated with its sphere of activity? Trigger extends the analysis within theoretical, historic and geographic premises, dealing with key aspects which have directly or indirectly had an impact on the discipline. Significant transformations in human history like industrialization, the formation of nation states or the increasing influence of the middle-class has imposed a set of required duties (including faulty orientations) on archaeology and especially on archaeologists. Trigger identifies this intrusion within three categories: nationalists, colonialist and imperialist archaeology.
     Nationalist archaeology, very widely encountered, focused on the glorification of the national past and the uninterrupted continuity between past and present. Colonialist archaeology developed especially in those countries whose native population was entirely replaced by European settlers. Most clearly, the phenomenon was noticed in the United States with the heavy underestimation and denigration of the Indians. Imperialist archaeology, instead, is associated with a small number of states with clear political demands versus other areas or states.
     Trigger notices positive efforts with the emergence of New Archaeology in America. The processualists ignored the stigmatization, employing new techniques and theories to the study of prehistory and native populations. However, the cataclysmic evolution of the American middle-class, has left considerable space for economic insecurity. At least in the United States, this situation has replaced imperialistic with so-called cataclysmic archaeology. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Tringham, R.
1983 "V. Gordon Childe 25 Years after: His Relevance for the Archaeology of the Eighties"
in Journal of Field Archaeology 10.1, pp. 85-100.
     Tringham reviews three biographies of Childe, putting his work in the context of a revival of his ideas in particular together with a revival of theoretical interests in the field. Her review goes beyond an analysis of the three volumes however, and attempts to describe Childe's influence on theoretical approaches, and how his ideas contrast with theoretical approaches en vogue in the 1980s, New Archaeology in particular. Childe's 'historical materialism' is discussed in the biographies as well as by Tringham, both in terms of the nature of change as well as the interplay between elements of society (95). Childe's development of the terms 'culture' and 'society' are also discussed. – [Federico Buccellati, April 2015]
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Tufte, Edward Rolf
1983 The Visual Display of Quantitative Information
Cheshire, CT Graphics Press, pp. 199 (first edition, second edition 2001).
10.5
1990 Envisioning Information
Cheshire, CT Graphics Press (first edition, second edition 2001).
1991 Dequantification in Scientific Visualization: Is This Science or Television
New Haven, CT Yale Unviersity Press.
1997 Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative
Cheshire, CT Graphic Press. pp. 156.
10.5
2004 The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint
Cheshire, CT Graphic Press, pp. 27.
2006 Beautiful Evidence
Cheshire, CT Graphic Press, pp. 213.
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Tunca, Öhnan
Xxxx "Archaeological Stratigraphy: Present Survey of its Development and the State of Knowledge"
in Theory and Practice of Archaeological Research. Acquisition of Field Data at Multi-Strata Sites.
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Committee of Pre- and Protohistoric Sciences II, pp. 17-24.
Th: stratigraphy
     A brief but thoughtful review of the early interest in stratigraphy, leading up to Wheeler and Kenyon, but referring also to the Polish and Italian contribution. There is then (pp. 18-21) a good review of Harris 1979 Principles and of Gasche 1983, followed by a critique of both. Harris' analysis gives insufficient attention to earlier research (p.21) and shows an inadequate appreciation of the role of geology (p. 22). In this respect, some revisions should also be introduced with regard to the notions of stratigraphy in general and "lithostratigra[hy" in particular (p. 22). – [Giorgio Buccellati, April 2013]
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Tyson, Lois
2014 Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide
London: Routledge. Third edition.
15.3
     This book is an introduction to critical theory in literary criticism. It is very readable and despite its aim to introduce different ways of interpreting works of literature, the chapters are also very relevant for archaeology. Almost all the theories discussed have influenced a variety of archaeological interpretation and methododolgy, and the explanations of how the concepts and specialised jargon originated are therefore extremely useful in understanding archaeological theory as well. – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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Urban, Wilbur M.
1950 "Metaphysics and History"
in The Review of Metaphysics 3, pp. 263-299.
15.3
     The validity of the notion of a "metaphysics of history is argued in relationship to two main points: "pronouncements upon history as a whole" and possible "propositions about the place of this whole, itself part of the totality of things, in the world we call the cosmos" (p. 264). A double antinomy arises. The first relates to history: what is the interrelationship between progress and recurrence (pp. 266-269) and how does history relate to ontology with special reference to the problem of time, pp. 277-283). The second (pp. 283-297) relates to metaphysics: what is "the place of history as a whole in the larger whole of reality. Human history is, after all, from one point of view, a part of cosmic history" (p. 283). [The concept of a "metaphysics of history" (or, for that matter, of archaeology) is thus very different from the one that would have obtained with Kant, as argued in 15.3.] – [Giorgio Buccellati]
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van Dyke, Ruth M.
2006 "Seeing the Past: Visual Media in Archaeology"
in American Anthropologist 108.2, pp. 370-375.
10.5
     The author analyses the use of various media to communicate archaeological topics and discoveries to the public. She shows how for example documentaries are subject to a very standardised format which stereotypes and undermines, "[a]nonymous workers gather "raw" data in the "dirty" field, whereas pedigreed authorities present "cooked" interpretations in the "clean" office and lab" (p. 371). – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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van Reybrouck, David; Dirk Jacobs
2006 "The Mutual Constitution of Natural and Social Identities during Archaeological Fieldwork"
in Edgeworth 2006, pp. 33-44.
8.1
8.5
Th: excavation
     Echoing Yarrow's sentiment, van Reybrouck and Jacobs argue that while observation becomes fact, individuals also become archaeologists in the process of excavation. Archaeologists are social actors, and careers are sometimes built on single finds. Archaeology is saturated with a language of 'rescuing' the past, giving the impression of heroism.
     "What takes place at an archaeological excavation is not the objective discovery of natural facts, nor the social construction of an emprirical reality, but the mutual constitution of actors and facts. These entities, regardless of whether they are postholes or prehistorians, are interrelated in a network. Only by allying themselves to each other can they become powerful nodes in the network. Powerful nodes are those that gain reality, that is, those that are recognized as being real. A discoloration in the sand becomes a true posthole through association with a reliable undergraduate student. An undergraduate student becomes a reliable observer at a dig through association with a clearly delineated posthole. They mutually articulate each other; they emerge simultaneously from actual practice." (p. 37).
     During excavation, selection, and by default de-selection or neglecting, is very important, and may seem arbitrary, "Attributing relevance to certain observations (and consciouly neglecting others) is a crucial prerequisite for the creation of socioempirical alliances. On his first day, Dirk [one of the authors, a student participating in his first excavation] discovers that excavation is not just about retrieving but also neglecting information. Every physical feature could be turned into a fact (Holtorf and Schadla-Hall 1999), but he notices how archaeologists select and favor certain categories over others. Digging is selection." (p. 39). – [Laerke Recht, October 2014]
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Verene, Donald Philip
1971 Cassirer: Symbol, Myth, and Culture. Essays and Lectures of Ernst Cassirer 1935-1945
New Haven: Yale University Press.
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Vidal, Jacques
1990 "Herméneutiques des symboles"
in Symboles et réligions.
Louvain-la-Neuve: Centre d'histoire des religions, pp. 257-403.
16.6
     In this text containing his academic course (1986-87), edited post mortem by J. Ries, Vidal presents two different definitions of hermeneutics of symbols. According to the first one, "une herméneutique est une science du sens acquise à partir de ses avéments, c'est-à-dire des avènements du sens" (p. 261), i.e., hermeneutics takes over from phenomenology, because phenomena lead to an invisible meaning that the hermeneutics researches. The second definition asserts that "on appelle herméneutique une technique d'interpretation du sense fondée sur le point de vue et la méthode d'une ou de plusieurs disciplines" (p. 269). Therefore hermeneutics is the subject of inter-disciplinarity (p. 270), or, better, it needs trans-disciplinarity (p. 294).
     In the second part of his analysis, Vidal classifies (as G. Durand already did) the different hermeneutical approaches in history in herméneutiques réductrices du symbole (S. Freud, G. Dumezil, C. Lévi-Strauss) that do not allow the meaning of the symbol to pass adequately; herméneutiques instauratrices du symbole (E. Cassirer, K.G. Jung) that help the appearance of the sense of the symbol; and in herméeutiques religieuse du symbole (P. Ricoeur, J. Juszezak, M. Eliade) because symbols show humanity's link with the sacred.
     According to Vidal, there is a symbol reduction whenever the symbol is explained, because the explanation itself is reductive; conversely, there is a symbol establishment whenever the symbol remains a function of the myth (p. 281). [Vidal's writing helps set up a general framework for the hermeneutics of symbols. The hermeneutics of archaeology cannot be defined if not also as a hermeneutics of symbols, i.e. of data carriers of meaning. Vidal's classification between reductive and establishing hermeneutics is not a schematic and absolute interpretation of the hermeneutical approaches; instead it should be used as a pedagogical instrument. Vidal's consciousness of the need for an "open" interpretation of symbols agrees with the point (See CAR 18.3) of the need for a second level of interpretation of archaeological data: "the transcendental hermeneutics."] – [Pia De Simone, May 2014]
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Vierra, Robert K.
1982 "Typology, Classification and Theory Building"
in Whallon & Brown 1982, pp. 162-174.
3.1
     The paper examines the relationship between typology and theory building and how typologies can be employed in theory building. It takes a functionalist perspective and attempts to elucidate the theoretical emphasis through the properties of the data. It is highly supportive of Dunnell and his epistemology of systematic theory, but somehow relies a great deal on the induction, while not quite enthusiastic about the narrative and empirical background of theory, or at least sees it exclusively as a derivate of quantitative and qualitative applications, and testing the hypothesis on the dataset/or the real world as he refers to it. The second part deals with a case study, which illustrates how particular features of an obsidian assemblage from Ayacucho valley inform various aspects of the environment they came from such as technology and function. The typology itself is not only the careful classification of data for answering a question in particular, it also has the potential to become a much brader contribution to theoretical thinking. – [Esmeralda Agolli, March 2014]
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Vila, Xurxo M. Ayán; Rebeca Blanco Rotea; Patricia Mañana Borrazás (eds.)
2003 Archaeotecture: Archaeology of Architecture
BAR International Series 1175.
Oxford: Archaeopress.
15.10.5
     Collection of papers which uses architectural analysis to discuss a range of archaeological contexts. – [Laerke Recht, December 2016]
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Villa, Paola
1982 "Conjoinable Pieces and Site Formation Processes"
in American Antiquity 47.2, pp. 276-290.
15.10.5
Th: stratigraphy
     The paper focuses on a particular situation of archaeological stratigraphy. It criticizes 'cultural stratigraphy' as an approach that fails to notice the vagaries of deposition and stratification which then affect the interpretations. Beyond the exaggerated attention given to the systematic removal of every layer and its unlinear association with a particular unit/culture, Villa invites us to focus on the vertical displacement of the artifact and see to what extent post depositional processes affect their stratigraphic location. Several case studies are considered and each shows interesting association among pieces found at various levels. Villa interprets the particular concentration of the conjoinable pieces caused by the post depositional processes, occupation of a technological activity or other domestic purposes. – [Esmeralda Agolli, July 2014]
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Voorrips, Albertus
1982 "Data Structuring Concepts: Definitions and Interrelationships"
in Whallon & Brown 1982, pp. 93-126.
     The paper is an intertwined approach to classification, dealing with the epistemological and philosophical assumptions which plausibly fit empirical classification and the concepts that lead the structure of data.
     It is divided into two conceptual divisions: 1) epistemological and philosophical assumptions, which basically deal with observations and processing of a data set, claiming that however meticulous each of us are, to some extent we are all restricted by several facts and factors which never allow the collection of the totality of data. It is impossible to produce a valid definition for an inductive practice considering that we only collect a sample from a large population and is due to this reason that we impose structure (p.98). Also, the truth is an independent entity that does not exist. Thus, any explanations, laws and theories are to be judged in terms of their usefulness and natural selection; 2) data structuring - Voorrips deliberately avoids the terms "Classification", focused instead on data structuring, seen as a conceptual shelter that deals altogether with classification, object grouping, variable construction and identification. Then the focus shifts to deductive/inductive premises. The deductive part offers clear definitions of concepts like classification, variables, classes and class frequencies, whereas the inductive part deals with methodological guidelines on object grouping and variable construction.
     Voorrips points out that any typology and grouping made with the goal of inductive generalization is unacceptable if its epistemology is not taken into account. – [Esmeralda Agolli, April 2014]
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Walker, Cameron; Neil Carr (eds.)
2013 Tourism and Archaeology: Sustainable Meeting Grounds
Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.
10.6
     In another treatment of archaeological heritage and engagement with stakeholders, the emphasis is here on direct collaborations between archaeology and tourism. The editors each come from the two areas, which guarantees a balance between them. The aim is to find the common ground (even if reasons behind them divert) and work together to create sustainable sites that retain their "authenticity" while being engaging for tourists and contributing revenue. – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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Walker, William H.
2002 "Stratigraphy and Practical Reason"
in American Anthropologist 104.1, pp. 159-177.
2.3
15.10.5
     This hits two birds with one stone. On the one hand, it criticizes the formalist approaches that apply common strategies and explanations to archaeological inference and stratigraphy through practical reason. On the other, by following an inductive emphasis, it marries archaeological and ethnographic records - attempting to heavily transform the understanding of the stratigraphic sequence by shifting the focus to detailed analysis in the archaeological record of the American southwest. In this enterprise Walker reaches explicit interpretations that drastically change the mentalities and clichés which sharply separated the social, political, economic and religious premises of a social group into hermeneutic niches. By closely considering the stratigraphic sequence, Walker argues that, taken together, these aspects may easily be intertwined as core elements highlighting actions with religious and ritual salience. Moreover, it is solely in such an environment that different types of gathering and ceremonies take place. In particular, he sees warfare as a crucially important avenue that uniquely involves other operational aspects of society. The many details offered in the second part give special attention to stratigraphic content and to what extent re-interpretations of the data and context dispute any previous explanation achieved by the simplicity of practical reason. – [Esmeralda Agolli, July 2014]
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Wasserman, Stanley; Katherine Faust
1994 Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
13.5.3
     This book discusses Network Theory in terms of complex social networks. Discussing both methods and applications, it serves as a good introduction for students and source for experts alike. The characteristic feature of network analysis is defined as its emphasis on the relationships between either individuals or groups of individuals.
     The roles of network analysis inlude, "to express relationally defined theoretical concepts by providing formal definitions, measures and descriptions, to evaluate models and theories in which key concepts and propositions are expressed as relational processes or structural outcomes, or to provide statistical analyses of multirelational systems" (p. 5). – [Laerke Recht, March 2016]
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Watson, Patty Jo; Steven A. LeBlanc; Charles L. Redman
1971 Explanation in Archaeology: An Explicitly Scientific Approach
New York: Columbia University Press, Chapters 1 and 2, pp. 3-57.
     These chapters argue that archaeology should be considered a science and archaeological data must be tested scientifically. Their point is mainly that one cannot come to conclusions from the ethnographic nor from the archaeological record without first arriving at a hypothesis then testing the material. – [Heidi Dodgen, April 2013]
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Webb, David
2013 Foucault's Archaeology: Science and Transformation
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
16.6.2
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Webster, Gary S.
2008 "Culture History: A Culture-Historical Approach"
in Bentley et al. 2008, pp. 11-27.
2.1
     Review of the approach of culture history in archaeology. Webster discusses the concept of 'culture' with its definitions and variations, and how this has been applied in archaeology. The archaeological record is in this context understood as not culture itself, but as a cultural product - a product of culture.
     Cultual historians tend to focus on classification and typology as methods of ordering the data and ultimately distinguish cultures. Rouse was one of the first to lay out a standard procedure for this. – [Laerke Recht, July 2014]
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Wells, Richard B.
2006 Critical Philosophy and the Phenomenon of Mind
Online only at www.mrc.uidaho.edu/~rwells/Critical Philosophy and Mind
14.10.1
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Whallon, Robert; J.A. Brown (eds.)
1982 Essays on Archaeological Theory
Evanston, Illinois: Center for American Archaeology Press.
6.2
     See individual papers:
     Cowgill 1982
     Read 1982
     Vierra 1982
     Brown 1982
     Hodson 1982
     Spaulding 1982
     Voorrips 1982 – [Laerke Recht, August 2014]
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Whittaker, John C.; Douglas Caulkins; Kathryn A. Kamp
1998 "Evaluating Consistency in Typology and Classification"
in Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 5.2, pp. 129-164.
     The first part of the paper offers an overview of notable works on classification, including Colton, Dunnell, Hill and Evans, Boyd, Adams and Adams and so on. The focal point is indeed consistency in typology and classification and under what theoretical and methodological principles a group of data is classified. Several issues that interfere with consistency, such as the arbitrary and intuitive decisions in the classification process, are also considered.
     The second part is rather methodological, and considers the case study of Sinagua Ceramic Typology. The authors deal with a particular approach known as consensus analysis, aiming not to simply classify but also question, test and evaluate the typological system in itself. The approach intends to create a typology only based on the attributes of the data without any other type of interference. The benefits of this strategy of classification, beyond the normal differences and controversy among the participants involved in the process yet offer the potential for the designation of types broadly accepted and tested with statistical inference. – [Esmeralda Agolli, March 2014]
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Willey, Gordon R.; Charles C. Di Peso; William A. Ritchie; Irving Rouse; John H. Rowe; Donald W. Lathrap
1955 "An Archaeological Classification of Culture Contact Situations"
in Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeologist 11, pp. 1-30.
     Insightful and explicit! The paper discusses explanation of archaeological evidence and inference within the constraints of cultural contacts. Various archaeological cases are compared with one another, supporting a classificatory scheme divided on site and trait-units; each category is comprised respectively by four axioms which cover the most common cultural contact scenarios encountered in the archaeological evidence. – [Esmeralda Agolli, June 2014]
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Wilson, Andrew T.; Ben Edwards
2015 Open Source Archaeology: Ethics and Practice
Berlin: De Gruyter.
13.1
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Wittgenstein, Ludwig
1991 Bemerkungen über Frazers Golden Bough
Brynmill.
Th: broken traditions
20094 Philosophische Untersuchungen / Philosophical Investigations
Chichester: Wiley and Blackwell.
Th: broken traditions
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Wobst, Martin
1977 "Stylistic Behavior and Information Exchange"
in Charles E. Cleland (ed.), For the Director: Research Essays in Honor of James B. Griffin.
Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan 61, pp. 317-342.
7.6
     Indeed a popular paper on the discussion of style and artifact variability. Along with Sackett 1977, Wobst also abandons agendas that define style through the special, non-utilitarian and aesthetic spectrum, imposing a functionalist perspective while arguing for a dynamic treatment of what he refers to as stylistic behavior, a crucial participant in information exchange and a creator of boundaries or connections among various social groups. In particular, two theoretical parameters are highlighted: 1) the inception of stylistic features yielded through the transmission and frequency of messages between the emitter and reception; and 2) the modes of exchange of the stylistic message ruled by social, economic, cultural and religious parameters. More explicitly, such an emphasis is illustrated through a case study, in the multiethnic and multi religious state of Yugoslavia. Wobst derives interesting comparisons of the traditional dressing code of various ethnic groups (Serbs, Albanians, Croats, Hungarians, Bosnians, Slovenians) differentiating salient features like the men's headdresses and coats. Both features are likely visible at a long distance while other items like skirts, pants, shirts and shoes commute at a shorter circle. This element is viewed as a resonator of the tension, competition and boundaries that characterize this social environment. Coats and headdresses (stylistic behavior) express a salient expression that serves as a feature of recognition, division and differentiation among groups living under the constraints of conflict and provocation. – [Esmeralda Agolli, April 2014]
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Wölfflin, Heinrich
1886 Prolegomena zu einer Psychologie der Architektur
Inaugural-Dissertation der hohen philosophischen Fakultät der Universität München zur Erlangung der höchsten akademischen Würden vorgelegt von Heinrich Wölfflin.
München: Kgl. Hof- & Universitäts-Buchdruckerei von Dr. C. Wolf & Sohn.
Available online [Accessed February 27, 2016]
1915 Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe: Das Problem der Stilentwicklung in der neueren Kunst
Munchen: Hugo Bruckmann.
The 5th edition (1921) is available online.
Principles of Art History: The Problem of the Development of Style in Later Art
Translated from 7th German Edition (1929) into English by M.D. Hottinger
New York: Dover Publications (1932).
7.6
15.11.8
     The significance of W.'s classic work for our concerns lies in his effort at establishing clear criteria for formal analysis. As is well known, he articulates five formal criteria by which to assess the "mode of representation," the "mode of imaginative process," the "mode of vision or ... of imaginative beholding" (p. vii). I consider the identification of these principles to be of great significance and very relevant to the Critique's effort at establishing a grammatically defined approach to the data, but this is not the place to review them in detail. I will only mention three points that are particularly relevant.
     (1) Formal analysis. – There is a special quality in W.'s choice of the five formal elements chosen. Far from being limited to a configuration of immediately apparent surface traits, they go deep into the formal structure of the figurative arts and of architecture. In this respect it emerges clearly how formal analysis, at the very moment that it focuses on "representation" and "beholding," goes well beyond the extrinsic dimension of a merely superficial appearance. (It is against a misunderstanding of the value of formal analysis that W. reacts in the passage from the 4th edition quoted below.)
     (2) Structure. – There is an emphasis on opposition and on clustering. This relates to the notion of structure, and it is interesting to note in this respect that at about the same time the other Swiss scholar, De Saussure, was developing (if much more forcefully and in a manner that was more oriented to systematization, even if he did not produce it as such) analogous "principles" of analysis for linguistics. It should be noted, on the other hand, that, while the title of the book points unequivocally in the direction of theory, the structural considerations are very much tied to the specifics of European Renaissance and baroque art. Still, as he rightly says, "this volulme is occupied with the discussion of these universal forms of representation" (p. 13, emphasis mine) and "it is not the art of the sixteenth and seventeenth century which was to be analysed ..., only the schema and the visual and creative possibilities within which art remained in both cases" (p. 226, emphasis mine). As a result, "we can call them categories of beholding without danger of confusion with Kant's categories. Although they clearly run in one direction, they are still not derived from one principle. (To a Kantian mentality they would look merely adventitious.)" (p. 227, emphasis mine, see Kant's reference to Aristotle's categories).
     (3) Grammar and style. – From the specific point of view of the Critique, it may be said W. addresses directly the question of grammar, with the intent to distinguish clearly this level of analysis from that of hermeneutics: ("The 'Principles' arose from the need of establishing on a firmer basis the classification of art history: not the judgment of values &# 8211 ; there is no question of that here – but the classification of style" p. vii, emphasis mine). We may add that the next stage is that of iconology, as taken up subsequently by Panofsky (this is the transition I see from grammar to hermeneutics). It should be noted that W. does not specifically define the notion of style, which is at the center of his interest. In the introduction he speaks of the "double root of style" (individual and collective, the latter consisting of "national" and period style), and he only refers to the common accepation of style seen "primarily as expression, expression of the temper of an age and a nation as well as expression of the individual temperament" (p. 10).
     [In this connection, it is interesting to read W.'s self defense, in the preface to the 4th edition (omitted in the subsequent editions and in the English translation), against those who had not understood that his intent was to define (in a Kantian sense, and he had Kant very clearly in mind) the levels of analysis, and not to eliminate the possibility of other levels, such as, precisely, the level of "values" or hermeneutics. "Das rote Tuch, das die Gemüter erregt, ist zunachst der Begriff "Kunstgeschichte ohne Namen". Ich weiß nicht, woher mir das Wort zugeflogen ist: es lag in der Luft. Es bezeichnet aber jedenfalls deutlich die Absicht, etwas zur Darstellung zu bringen, das unter dem Individuellen liegt. Hier setzt nun der Widerspruch laut ein: "das Wertvolle ist doch die Persönlichkeit in der Kunstgeschichte; die Ausschaltung des Subjekts bedeutet eine trostlose Verarmung; an Stelle der Geschichte tritt ein blutloses Schema usw.". Nun, plumper hatte man mich nicht mißverstehen konnen. Was sollen denn diese Beteuerungen, wo kein Mensch die Tatsache vom Wert des Individuums bezweifelt! Was ich gebe, ist doch nicht eine neue Kunstgeschichte, die sich an Stelle der alten setzen will: es ist doch nur ein Versuch, die Sache einmal von einer anderen Seite her anzufassen, um für die Geschichtsschreibung Richtlinien zu finden, die eine gewisse Sicherheit des Urteils verburgen. Ob der Versuch gelungen ist oder nicht, steht hier außer Frage. Ich verteidige nur das Ziel, das fur jeden eine Bedeutung haben muB, der mit der Feststellung der äußeren Tatsachen die Aufgabe der Kunstgeschichte nicht fur erledigt halt" (p. X, emphasis mine).] – [Giorgio Buccellati, February 2016]
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Worsaae, Jens Jacob Asmussen
1843 Danmarks Oldtid oplyst ved Oldsager og Gravhøie
[The Primeval Antiquities of Denmark]
Copenhagen: Selskabet for Trykkefrihedens rette Brug.
2.3
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     Worsaae puts Thomsen's proposition of a three-phase chronological system into practical use in his analysis of Danish prehistoric sites and objects. At the end of the work, he provides a detailed description of the best way to excavate a site, in particular tumuli, noting however that excavation in general is undesirable and should only happen in order to learn more about the past and ancient people. If it must be done, it should be meticulous and carried out by experts. It should start with a description of the site before excavation starts, accompanied by drawings; it should be done stratigraphically and include sections. Like Thomsen, he emphasises the need to trace and record the internal association of objects, how to treat different types of objects and materials during excavation and the retainment of both human and animal bones. – [Laerke Recht, July 2013]
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Wright, Alex
1977 "The Secret History of Hypertext"
in The Atlantic, May 2014.
Available online: www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/05/in-search-of-the-proto-memex/371385/
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Wright, Larry
1972 "Functions"
in The Philosophical Review 82.2, pp. 139-168.
6.3.4
15.11.3
     The teleology of function; this is a philosophical account that attempts to reveal the ascription of function. The main question is: to what extent do parameters or operations configure the boundaries of function, considering its ambiguous nature? The making of systematic paradigmatic sense remains at the center of attention.
     Wright defines three rudimentary distinctions to address the nature of function: 1) Function versus goals - the perception of function revolves within goal-directed behavior. However, the relationship between function and goal-directed behavior is not an easy one to be allocated; 2) A function versus the function - both cannot be divided, only considered part of each other in a derivational order. Given the analytical focus of the paper there is particular concern with first choice 'a function' while Wright argues: "in short the discussion of this paper is concerned with a function of X only in so far as it is the sort of thing which would be the function of X if X had no others; Accordingly, I take the definite-article formulation as paradigmatic and will deal primarily with it, adding comments in terms of the indefinite-article formulation parenthetically, where appropriate". 3) Function versus accident - the distinction regards the centered function of something and another type of function (accident) that is not recognized as the immediate function. For instance, the function of a telephone is to communicate, however its ring late at night may cause disturbance, or it absorbs and reflects light; 4) Conscious versus natural function - the natural functions for instance can be defined as organic while the conscious functions involve consciously made habits or behaviors.
     Above all, as Wright argues the distinction between natural and conscious functions is the most complicated task, especially when theological views interfere in the discourse. Wright offers a critical overview for previous frameworks like those of Canfield and Beckner. According to him, their analytical scheme on function lacks the cohesiveness missing an objective clarification between the understanding and selection of natural and conscious functions.
     As an alternative, Wright argues for an explanatory scheme that sees the teleology of function and the explanations of something in a relational and contextual equivalence, also involving the dichotomy between natural and conscious distinctions, simultaneously implying questions like: What is the function of the heart? Why do humans have a heart? Why is it there? What does it do? What consequences does it have that account for its being there? What if something has more than one function? – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
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Wylie, Alison
1985 "Between Philosophy and Archaeology"
in American Antiquity 50.1, pp. 478-490.
15.13
     The paper discusses the implication of philosophy in empirical science. It brings up a vivid debate that took place in the 1970 s and some notable efforts that aimed to break the hermeneutic trend of philosophy, engaging increasingly its focus and that of other disciplines (e.g. Carnap and Feyerabend). With regard to archaeology, Wylie points out three main issues that characterized the involvement of philosophy: 1) philosophical theories imported in a constructive mode, simply inapplicable to concrete problems of archaeological practice; 2) the models imported were inconsistent with the aims of New Archaeology; and 3) the manner in which these models were imported and exploited was counter-productive. Furthermore, Wylie discusses the views of Schiffer and Flannery respectively, calling for an external and internal role of philosophy in archaeology. Schiffer sees the two as sharply divided and attributes the role of criticizer and theorizer to the philosophers while (with Flannery) the philosophical voice and theory must spring from and develop within the field, perhaps from senior and experienced scholars. Wylie instead recognizes that many philosophical questions about science cannot be easily transferred to archaeology. However, they provide useful epistemological emphasis and potential resources to develop coherent analysis and theories in archaeology. Such can be achieved through internal analysis between the two which must be carried out with rigorous empirical and conceptual methodology. – [Esmeralda Agolli, August 2014]
1985 "The Reaction against Analogy"
in Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 8, pp. 63-111.
4.1
10.3
15.2
15.4
16.2.2
     The most comprehensive account of conceptual understanding and methodological application of analogical inference in archaeology! With a systematic and inclusive strategy, Wylie offers a critical overview of any theoretical and methodological achievement without losing her original voice.
     In fact, the subject of analogy has been a serious counterpart of the discipline, experiencing indeed a heavy ambivalence between its promoters and neglecters. The early efforts of Sollas, Kluckhom, Ascher, Hawkes, Thompsen and so on, showed particular enthusiasm for the application of analogical inference. On the other hand, serious sceptics like Clarke and Freeman have persuasively argued for its total elimination in archaeological analysis.
     According to Wylie, the research strategy of the promoters has proven to be faulty and misleading and easily perceived through a formalist framework pursuing particularistic agendas that have not addressed the real potential of analogical analysis. However, analogy may prove beneficial and elucidating only if based on a well-argued set of criteria.
     The application of analogy revived with the era of New Archaeology. Processualists like Binford or Hill viewed analogy as a crucial tool in the understanding, explanation and interpretation of archaeological data and contexts. Wylie evaluates positively efforts like that of James Hill with the case of Broken Pueblo. However, she notes that beyond any enthusiasm, the application of analogical inference was not achieved by a scientific methodology that could provide tested results.
     Wylie argues for the application of a conceptual scheme that acts simultaneously on both source and subject (a group of artifacts, a particular social, political or religious matter in two potentially analogical contexts); and treats the principles of connections cohesively. Careful attention must be given to the similarities and differences, to systemic comparison and to the types of relations that source and object may create (i.e. formal, proportional or contingent). When dealing with a particular group of artifacts, the analysis (source and subject) should also include the correlation between functional and morphological attributes. – [Esmeralda Agolli, October 2014]
2002 Thinking from Things: Essays in the Philosophy of Archaeology
Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.
15.13
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Wynn, Thomas G.
1989 The Evolution of Spatial Competence
Illinois Studies in Anthropology 17.
Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, pp. viii-108.
6.3.3
14.1
14.3.2
14.11
M: Wynn
     Very significant for the substantive proposal put forth, this book is an exemplary model of inferential analysis and of its application to cognitive archaeology. It is also the best example of trace analysis 2.2.2. The description of the basic concepts is extremely lucid, and the exemplification is apposite and illuminating.
     The two parts of the book reflect the central division highlighted in CAR 2.2.2. The first part, devoted to "intuitive geometries," develops a "critical" approach to the data: how can the traces be identified and assessed for their inner-referential value. The second part, devoted to "intelligence," develops a hermeneutic apprach. In this light, Wynn's book may be seen as paradigmatic for the central thesis in CAR.
     Wynn's central argument concerns the ability of early hominins (between 1.8 million and 300,000 years ago) to apply production standards to the making of stone tools. This is what he calls "spatial competence." From here, the author extrapolates to possible conclusions about the "intelligence" of these hominins, applying criteria that are modeled on Piagetian child psychology. He thus offers one of the earliest and best argued contributions to cognitive archaeology, by articulating very carefully the limits and the options of the inferences that can be drawn from limited evidence that becomes quite eloquent when studied as the author does.
     The significance of the emplacement record is stressed (pp. 5-9), showing how this defines the chronological framework that underlies the sample.
     The arrangement of the traces of blows on the stone tools gives a clear indication of complex sequences [which speak to chaîne opératoire and structure]. The argument as developed is a jewel of inferential reasoning: it describes with great clarity the observational itinerary that takes into account the nature and position of each trace, and shows how one can conclude from that to the underlying process, and then in turn to the cognitive presuppositions. This rests on carefully illustrated examples, which I report in extenso, because of their importance, in the Excerpts; even so, to do justice to the richness and depth of the argumentation, one must sudy carefully the entire text.
     [The argument developed by the author supports strongly the concepts of structure (15.1) and bracing (15.3.2), even though these are not brought out explicitly by the author.] – [Giorgio Buccellati, November 2014]
2002 "Archaeology and Cognitive Evolution"
in Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25, pp. 389-438.
"Open Peer Commentary," pp. 403-432.
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Wynn, Thomas; Frederick L. Coolidge
2011 How to Think Like a Neandertal
New York: Oxford University Press.
14.11
     The authors here offer an unusual approach to the study of early hominids by examining in detail how Neandertals were similar to modern humans, and in what ways they differed. Their focus is on cognition and without prejudice about the nature of intelligence, they set out to discover what can be said about the life of these extinct cousins. – [Laerke Recht, February 2017]
     In How to Think Like a Neandertal, archaeologist Thomas Wynn and psychologist Frederick L. Coolidge team up to provide a brilliant account of the mental life of Neandertals, drawing on the most recent fossil and archaeological remains. Indeed, some Neandertal remains are not fossilized, allowing scientists to recover samples of their genes - one specimen had the gene for red hair and, more provocatively, all had a gene called FOXP2, which is thought to be related to speech. Given the differences between their faces and ours, their voices probably sounded a bit different, and the range of consonants and vowels they could generate might have been different. But they could talk, and they had a large (perhaps huge) vocabulary - words for places, routes, techniques, individuals, and emotions. Extensive archaeological remains of stone tools and living sites (and, yes, they did often live in caves) indicate that Neandertals relied on complex technical procedures and spent most of their lives in small family groups. The authors sift the evidence that Neandertals had a symbolic culture - looking at their treatment of corpses, the use of fire, and possible body coloring - and conclude that they probably did not have a sense of the supernatural. The book explores the brutal nature of their lives, especially in northwestern Europe, where men and women with spears hunted together for mammoths and wooly rhinoceroses. They were pain tolerant, very likely taciturn, and not easy to excite. – [Publisher's blurb]
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Yarrow, Thomas
2003 "Artefactual Persons: The Relational Capacities of Persons and Things in the Practice of Excavation"
in Norwegaian Archaeological Review 36.1, pp. 65-73.
4.1
Th: excavation
     Subject and object cannot be distinguished in excavation; excavators and site/objects modify each other in both directions, and can only be characterised in relation to other entities. In fieldwork, equivalence (and in turn objectification) is creating standardisation and discourse that serve to erase differences; along with difficulties in determining the beginning of interpretation, this blurs the subject-object dichotomy of excavation.
     Yarrow agrees with Lucas' notion of archaeologists altering a site and the material they find as soon as they start excavating. But this also goes in the other direction: the site/material alters the actions of the archaeologist, "Just as the archaeologists created the objectivity of the things that they were excavated, so the things that were excavated created the people excavating them as 'archaeologists'" (p. 71). – [Laerke Recht, September 2014]
2006 "Sites of Knowledge: Different Ways of Knowing an Archaeological Excavation"
in Edgeworth 2006, pp. 20-32.
8.1
Th: excavation
     Discussion of how archaeologists create sites and how sites in turn create archaeologists - "As one of the site specialists noted, the importance of the nearby site of Star Carr is not due primarily to the site's "dazzling material inventory" but to the work and reputation of Grahame Clark who originally excavated it. ... In this way, then, it could be argued that the site drew its importance from the importance of Grahame Clark himself. The fact that Clark was the most eminent Mesolithic archaeologist of the time is in part why Star Carr has been established as the most important Mesolithic site. He did not therefore simply interpret the site, but was instrumental in its creation in a very literal sense." (p. 26). – [Laerke Recht, October 2014]
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Yoffee, Norman; Andrew Sherratt
1993 Archaeological Theory: Who Sets the Agenda?
Cambridge/New York/Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
5.6
15.12.4
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Zadeh, Lofti A.
1965 "Fuzzy Sets"
in Information and Control 8, pp. 338-353.
Available online: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001999586590241X
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Websites


Archaeological Methods
Cummings, V.; S. Hawkesworth; A. Degya
2010 UCLAN University of Central Lancashire
Last visited 10 Feb 2016
Th: excavation,
stratigraphy
     Website providing step-by-step instructions on excavation methods, including detailed descriptions of how to use a trowel, cleaning, identifying a feature etc. Each step is accompanied by video and/or image demonstrations. Aimed especially at the British environment. – [Laerke Recht, February 2016]
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Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave
Wayback Machine stable link
2016 National Archaeology Museum
Last visited 25 Aug 2016
9.4
     This website provides a virtual tour through the Chauvet Cave. The camera can be moved in all directions in each chamber, all of which is given an appropriate ambient light. At each painting and other points of interest, the visitor can click for further explanations and high resolution images. In some cases, edited images (negatives or with corrected colour levels) have been created so that the paintings stand out more clearly. Further high definition images can be found in the gallery.
     The website also offers background information about the site, its setting and discovery, and research and conservation being undertaken. This is an excellent resource for studying the cave itself and as a background to the study of early art and humans. – [Laerke Recht, August 2016]
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Grammar of the Archaeological Record (GAR)
2014 by Giorgio Buccellati
Last visited 26 March 2014
     The operational text that underlies the implementation of the theory presented in the website Critical Theory of Archaeology. – [Giorgio Buccellati]
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Michael Shanks Archaeologist
2013 Website of Michael Shanks
Last visited 24 May 2013 [June 2017: website no longer exists, but can be found on Wayback Machine]
     Michael Shanks' website, with some of his ideas concerning archaeology and what archaeologists do, with many links to further papers, websites and blogs concerning the subject. Also thoughts about digital approaches to archaeology. – [Laerke Recht, May 2013]
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Symmetrical Archaeology
2013 Directed by Timothy Webmoor and Christopher Witmore
Last visited 27 May 2013 [June 2017: website no longer exists, but can be found on Wayback Machine]
2.1
     Website introducing the idea of 'symmetrical archaeology', where archaeology is understood as properly being the 'science of things', which should aim for a symmetry between meaning and things. There are also many links to further discussions, the projects carried out and references to papers. – [Laerke Recht, May 2013]
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The Harris Matrix
Wayback Machine stable link
2016 Edward Harris
Last visited 16 January 2017 [note: new website in construction, notes below are for contents on the last visited date]
     Website dedicated specifially to the 'matrix' diagram invented by Edward Harris in 1973 for illustrating stratigraphic relations of the archaeological record (i.e. the Harris Matrix). The website offers a free download to Harris' main book on the subject (second edition, 1989), a bibliography of other papers on stratigraphy, and links to software programmes that aid the production of the matrix. – [Laerke Recht, January 2017]
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Viaggio nei Fori
Wayback Machine stable link
2016 by Piero Angela & Paco Lanciano
Last visited 2 August 2016
10.5
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